The physical characteristics of the paper, which are determined by the structure and orientation of the fibers developed during the paper formation process when the paper is being made.
The paper’’s runnability, strength, and consistency in thickness throughout the sheet are affected by the uniformity of the distribution of fibers during the formation process. The squareness of the sheet is also determined during the formation process.
The squareness is affected by the grain direction ratio of the paper, which is the ratio of fibers that line up in the machine direction in comparison to the cross direction. A better refined formation process results in more uniform and smooth paper.
Desired end results and large variations in paper formation can be controlled by today’’s advanced formation technologies.