Glossary of Printing Terms:D

D.T. Cover

“Double-thick” describes a sheet of paper made by bonding two thicknesses of paper together resulting in an extra-stiff sheet.

Daemon

An automated and independent background program that performs specific functions in UNIX systems.

Dagger and double dagger

symbols used mainly as reference marks for footnotes.

Daguerreotype

Announced in 1839, the first direct-positive photographic process using silver-plated copper sensitized with fumes of iodine and developed in mercury vapors. Daguerrotypes are extremely precise and quickly became the process of choice for the early photographers. Attempts to duplicate daguerrotype images fueled development of the photogravure process.

Daisychaining

Connecting multiple devices in a linking fashion or chain.

Damask Paper

Paper with a finish that resembles linen.

Damp Streaks

Streaks caused by uneven pressing of drying during paper manufacturing.

Dampeners

In lithography, cloth covered, parchment paper or rubber rollers that distribute the dampening to the press plate.

Dampening Solution

Water, gum buffered acid, and various types of etches used to keep the non – image areas of the plate moist, and preventing them from accepting ink, in the lithographic printing process; also called fountain solution.

Dampening System

The part of an offset press that draws a thin film of dampening solution-water with isopropyl alcohol and other additives over the non-printing areas of the form. In vibrator-type dampening systems there is direct contact between the dampening solution container and a vibrator cylinder./r/n/r/nIn centrifugal, turbo or brush-type dampening systems there is no such direct contact.

Dampstained

A light stain on the cover or on the leaves of a book caused by moisture such as a piece of food or perspiration.

Generally not as severe as waterstains.

Dandy Roll

A roll that is located above the wet web of paper. It smoothes the top surface of the paper as it passes under the roll. A watermarking dandy roll has a skeletal structure which is covered with a wire cloth that has a design affixed to it. As the wet web of paper passes under the watermarking dandy roll, the design is impressed into the paper which results in a permanent watermark on the sheet.

DAO

Data Access Objects

Darkening

Refers to the condition of a book; describes the loss of color on the pages, dust jacket, or the cover of the book, which is usually caused by time or exposure to sunlight.

See also Fading.

Darkroom

A lighttight area used for processing films and for printing and processing papers; also for loading and unloading film holders and some cameras.

Dash

In typography it is a mark used as an indicator of a pause between thoughts. The dash is comprised of the following varieties: two hyphens, the em dash, and the two en dashes. The vertical position, weight, and width will vary in different typestyles.

Data Center

A data center is a facility used to house mission critical computer systems and associated components.

It generally includes environmental controls (air conditioning, fire suppression, etc.), redundant/backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections and high security.

Data Compression

Term used in information technology for the reduction of memory space required for data by optimizing the binary notation of the information. Depending on the nature of the original data and their coding, compression ratios of 1:100 and higher can be achieved.

A distinction is made between compression methods that involve loss of information and “non-lossy” or lossless methods. Typical “lossy” methods include the JPEG format for images or the MP3 format for music clips.

Methods for compressing numerical data, such as MNP5 and V.42bis for data transmission, and compression methods for files (zip, lha, rar, etc.), are of the lossless variety.

Data Disk

A circular, rotating disk at the end of Advanced Photo System film cassettes that functions as a circular bar code, communicating the film speed, type and exposure length through a sequence of reflective bars to an optical sensor in the camera.

Data Entry

The process of entering names and addresses or other data into a computer from a printed or handwritten list.

Data Feed

The information or data that is selected from a base of content residing on a computer file and sent to a variable output device for variable information processing. Data feeds may be pictures or text that is selected to send a personalized message to a target audience of many or one.

Data Field

In a database, it is the area designated for specific information to be entered and stored.

Data Management

The process of an operating system to organize, catalog, locate, store, retrieve, and maintain data.

Data Mining

Term encompassing a range of processes used to glean information from databases. Data mining involves statistical and artificial intelligence methods and can reveal information about the typical behavior of groups of people. Data mining is a tool used, for example, by banks, insurance and other companies that collect large amounts of data on their customers.

Data Transmission

The sending of a computer file over a network or other form of telecommunications.

Database

A collection of data items which are organized and stored in fields and records which enables a computer program to easily access selected pieces of data.

Database Marketing

The use of computer files containing data such as names, addresses, marital status, age, needs and other relevant facts to market a specific product or service to prospective customers. Sometimes referred to as target marketing, it allows for targeting of the audience in order to improve respones rates.

Database Publishing

The creation of marketing materials that may be personalized or customized through the use of a repository of information, or a database, that has been created to provide information on a variety of aspects of an audience.

Day-Glo

Trade name for inks and papers containing fluorescent pigments.

DBMC

Destination Bulk Mail Center Rate

A discounted postal rate that is obtained when the mailing is properly prepared and delivered by the mailer to the BMC (Bulk Mail Center) or other designated postal facility that is to service the delivery address (ZIP Code range) on the mail.

DBMS

Database Management System

The tools or programs used to help administer and maintain a database so that stored data can be accessed by many users.

DC LCD Screen

Digital Camera Liquid Crystal Display Screen

Approximately 1.8” in width on a digital camera,

The screen displays the colored image of the subject matter before or after the photograph has been taken.

DCA

Data-Centric Application

Relies on a connection to a database where the bulk of its processing involves querying a database and returning results.

DCS

Desktop Colour Separation

an image file format the creates five files for each colour image (one postscript file for each cmyk layer and one pict preview file).

DDAP

Digital Distribution of Advertising for Publications

DDCP

Direct Digital Color Proof

A color proof made directly from a digital file without having to produce film. The digital data goes directly to the device producing the proof, such as a ink jet printer, laser printer or photographic exposure.

DDU

Destination Delivery Unit

The postal facility designated to deliver the mail to the address on the mail piece.

DDU Rate

Destination Delivery Unit Rate

A discounted rate obtained for Standard Mail and Periodicals that has been properly prepared by the mailer and entered at the delivery unit that serves the address on the mail.

DDU Rate

Destination Delivery Unit

A discounted rate obtained for Standard Mail and Periodicals that has been properly prepared by the mailer and entered at the delivery unit that serves the address on the mail.

De-Inked Paper Stock

Recycled paper. It is made up of fibers from repulped waste paper that has had the ink removed by mechanical and chemical processes.

De-Inked Pulp

DIP

Wastepaper pulp which has been de-inked through chemical or mechanical processing

Dead Label

An EAS label that has been deactivated so that it will not alarm an EAS detection system.

Dealer Incentive

Premium or other reward given by manufacturer to retailers or distributors in return for a specified bulk purchase.

Debossing

The process in which the image is recessed into the paper.

Debossment

An impression made by impacting the front of the paper stock or substrate with excessive pressure, resulting in a sunken appearance of an image or character that moves away form the view and into the stock.

Debug

To check the functions and processes of a software program so that errors are detected and removed.

DEC

Digital Equipment Corporation

A proprietary networking protocol developed by Digital Equipment Corporation.

This enables DEC devices to communicate with each other and share data.

Decal Transfer

A water-soluble decal, printed on an offset or letterset press, is submerged in water and slid onto the product to be imprinted.

The decal is rubbed with a cloth or squeegee to remove any excess water and air from between the product and the decal. The product is then kiln-fired. Once fired, the decal becomes fused with the glaze. Hairline registration and superior reproduction of detail make it an excellent choice.

Decalcomania Paper

A type of transfer paper that allows the transfer a printed image to another object such as glass. Also called a decal.

Decay Resistance

Wood’s resistance to attack by decay fungi.

Deciduous tree

A tree that loses its leaves or needles during the fall and winter.

Deckle

The width of web (machine width), which a papermaking machine is capable of making, being limited by the deckle straps.

Deckle Edge

Produced in hand-papermaking by drainage under a wooden frame surrounding the hand mould.

The rough edges on hand-made and some machine-made papers were originally
considered an imperfection.

The deckle edge came back in fashion with the handcraft revival in the last decade of the 19th century.

Deckle Stain

A coloring or tint along the deckle edge.

Decollate

The act of separating the pages or parts of a printed document. In multipart forms, it is the separation of parts and removal of carbon paper.

Decorative Stamped Binding

A highly detailed impression stamped into the cover and/or spine of a book.

Decryption

The process of decoding encrypted text (text or data put into a secret format) into plain text. This requires the user to have a secret key or password to do the decryption.

Decurler

A device on a web press or sheeter used to remove paper curl.

Decurling

A paper decurling station on a sheeter or web press, used to remove paper curl.

Dedicated Flash

A fully automatic flash that works only with specific cameras. Dedicated flash units automatically set the proper flash sync speed and lens aperture, and electronic sensors within the camera automatically control exposure by regulating the amount of light from the flash.

Dedicated Line

A permanent connection to the Internet using a separate phone line; it is also called a private line and a leased line.

Dedicated System

A system used for one dedicated purpose such as a composition or editorial, purchased for the sole purpose of publishing.

Dedication Copy

A copy of a book specifically inscribed by the author to a particular person.

Dedication Page

The page of a book that lists the persons and/or institutions to whom the author has committed the work.

It is usually located opposite the copyright page.

Deep flap

The closure flap folds down over 90% of the bottom and side flaps of the envelope.

Deep shadow

An area of an image not directly lit.

There are two categories of shadows: umbra and penumbra. Umbra denotes completely shadowed areas and is formed when there is only one pointed light source, as a result of which the area behind the object is completely unlit.

Penumbra refers to partially lit areas, when the light source is not pointed or when there is more than light source.

Default

A value or standard that has been placed in computer programs or Web applications to create a position that establishes one type of understood procedure that will exist unless changed by the operator or client using the program or application.

Definition

The degree to which fine image detail has been produced.

Definitive Edition

The most authoritative version of a work.

Degreasing

Before making a stencil, the mesh should be degreased with a suitable degreasing agent.

Please do not use household detergents!

Deinking

A treatment to remove the printing ink from wastepaper so that the secondary fibers can be reprocessed. The deinking process makes it possible for higher-grade stocks to be manufactured from recyled content. The reprocessed pulp that results is known as DIP, or deinked pulp.

Delamination

The separating of splitting of joined layers of laminated product or sheet stock as they come apart.

Delimiter

A a symbol that separates and organizes elements of data. Delimiters are used in almost every application on a computer. Ex. A backslash () is used to separate directories and filenames

Delivery

The end of a press where the newly printed sheets are stack or rolls are rewound.

Demographics

The social and economic characteristics of a group of people, such as sex, age education, income, type of residence and family size.

Densitometer

An instrument used for calculating density. It is used by printers to determine if film has been properly exposed and processed and also to verify proper ink coverage on the press. Reflection densitometers calculate the reflect light from a surface and transmission densitometers calculate the amount of light that is transmitted through film and other materials.

Densitometry

Densitometry is the quantitative measurement of ink density or the amount of ink per unit of area. It is used to determine tonal values, but not color hues. Densitometry can be used in photography and in reproduction for quality assurance purposes.

Density
  1. The degree of lightness or darkness of a color or the level at which it can block out and absorb light.

  2. The paper’’s weight in comparison to its bulk. A paper weighing more but that is thinner than another paper is more dense.

The level of compaction of the fibers in paper affect its density.

Density Range

The measure of tonal values derived by calculating the difference in density from the shadow tones to the highlight tones of an image, film negative or film positive.

Dentelle

A decorative lace-like pattern on the inner edge of a book cover that is inspired from embroidery and the decorative arts.

This binder’s technique was used primarily in France in the 18th century.

Dents

Damage to the edges of the cover of hardcover books.

Depth

On continuous forms, it is the dimension from one cross perf to the next that divides the individual forms. On unit sets, it is the dimension parallel to the stub as it is cut off at the collator. Allowable depth sizes of a continuous and the cut off sizes of a unit set are determined by the circumference of the plate cylinders.

Depth of Field

The entire focused area within a digital camera’’s photo range, both near and far. A large depth of field will mean there is reasonably sharp focus for the subject matter close to the camera and the background behind the subject.

Depth of Focus

The distance range over which the film could be shifted at the film plane inside the camera and still have the subject appear in sharp focus; often misused to mean depth of field.

Descender

On lower case letters, it is the lower part that extends below the baseline, such as on the letters g, j, p, and y in comparison to the letters a, c, e, m, and n.

Descreening

A feature used in scanning software that is supposed to blur or merge dot patterns into a solid set of pixels. Descreening softens and distorts the artwork, avoiding moiré patterns.

Desensitizing

A process where desensitizing ink is used on carbonless forms to prevent image transfer in specific areas. The ink is applied to the front side of the CF and/or CFB paper where image transfer is not desired. The ink causes the CF coating to be deactivated or desensitized, preventing an image transfer to take place between the CB and CFB and/or CF papers.

Design Grid

An arrangement system consisting of horizontal and vertical lines in which all text blocks, images and pictures are contained, it is used to prevent the disorganized presentation of images, tables and other design elements. The definition of a design grid is part of the field of macrotypography.

Desktop

A word used to describer the computer’’s working or operating environment. It includes the screen layout, the menu bar, and the program icons associated with the machine’’s operating system. Desktop is also used to describe the opening or main screen where commonly used icons, representing software programs, documents, folders, file drawers, and printers, are stored for easy access.

Desktop Publishing Stripping

Assembling all elements electronically in final impostion to output directly to negative or plate

Despenser

A device used to manually or automatically dispense pressure sensitive labels. It presents the label to be applied to a label. Application can be preformed by hand or mechanically.

Destructible Label

Destructible labels are impossible to remove and replace in one piece. Attempts to remove result in the label flaking off in pieces. Tampering is easily detected.

Developer

A solution used to turn the latent image into a visible image on exposed films or photographic papers.

Developing Tank

A lighttight container used for processing film.

Device

Refers to a printer’s mark or imprint that was used primarily in the 16th and 17th centuries, typically found on the title page or at the end of a book.

Today the term can also be used to describe a publisher’s trademark or logo. Also known as printer’s mark.

Device Pixel

The smallest dot that a printer can produce. Most desktop laser printers are capable of a 1/300” square dot for 300 dpi and 1/600” for 600 dpi. Imagesetters may be capable of much higher resolutions, using a square dot as small as 1/3300”. These compare to most video monitors that can display only a 1/72” square dot.

Device-independent color space

A reference color standard. Most color management systems use the LAB color histogram of the CIE (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage) as the international color standard, independent of all devices.

Dextrine gum

Most used in the envelope flap gum. Dextrines are made from starch re-wettable gum.

DFE

Digital Front End

The digital devices used to drive the data being sent to the output devices.

DFTA

Deutschsprachige Flexodruck Fachgruppe e.V.

Created in the fall of 1979 and modeled after the FTA (Flexographic Technical Association), this association is based in Stuttgart and has over 400 members from the flexographic industry and scientific establishments. The association’s goals include the technical advancement of flexographic printing, basic and advanced training, and the exchange of expertise and experience. The DFTA has a technology center at the Media College of Stuttgart Technical University.

DHTML

Dynamic HTML

An extension of the HTML language that enables Web content to be changed each time it is viewed. For example, a different page could be displayed depending on the geographic location of the reader, time of day, or the previous pages viewed by the reader. There are many technologies for producing dynamic HTML, including CGI scripts, Server-Side Includes (SSI), cookies, Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX.

Diacritic

A mark normally used in conjunction with another glyph.

In Latin fonts these are sometimes called ‘accents’. In Hebrew and Arabic these are marks that denote vowels.

Dial-up

A temporary connection to a network which is done over a telephone line using modems or dumb terminals.

Dialog marketing

Refers to all company activities intended to directly address potential customers and elicit a response. Examples of dialog marketing include mailshots (personalized communications) containing various response options. The Internet is an ideal medium for dialog marketing.

Diameter

The widest measurement across the roll.

Diaphragm

Lens opening. A perforated plate or adjustable opening mounted behind or between the elements of a lens used to control the amount of light that reaches the film. Openings are usually calibrated in f-numbers.

Diazo

A chemical which is sensitive to ultraviolet light.

It is used to coat paper or film for making prints.

Didot

A standard point measurement system on which type sizes are based. A Didot point equals 0.376 mm (0.0148 inch), and 12 Didot points equal a cicero ( 4,511 MM or 0.178 inches).

Die

A metal device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing or debossing. Most dies have a male and female part. The male creates the image and the female provides the reinforcement of the image.

Die cut

Die cutting is the process whereby shapes are cut out of paper, or other substrates. Designers will generally have to specify a cutting grid, in their page layout or vector drawing program, that the printer will use as a guide for making the Die.

Die Cut Label

A pressure sensitive label that has the facestock die cut in a specific shape. The die cut is accomplished by using a die which is basically made up of cutting blades that are formed into the desired shape. The die will cut through the facestock only and not through the liner. Once the label is die cut the matrix is removed, leaving only the label on the liner.

Die Cutting

The main method or standard means of die cutting involves the use of metal dies to give paper or substrate products specific shapes or designs that cannot be accomplished by a straight cut on a web press or a guillotine cutter.

Die Stamping

Producing an image by stamping the printing material with a die.

Die-cut Window

A window on the front of a Photobook Hardcover that is cut out but not wrapped.

Diffuse Lighting

Lighting that is low or moderate in contrast, such as on an overcast day.

Diffusing

Softening detail in a print with a diffusion disk or other material that scatters light.

Diffusion Dithering

A method of dithering that randomly distributes pixels instead of using a set pattern. See also Dithering.

Diffusion Enlarger

An enlarger that scatters light before it strikes the negative, distributing light evenly on the negative. Detail is not as sharp as with a condenser enlarger; negative blemishes are minimized.

Diffusion-Condenser Enlarger

An enlarger that combines diffuse light with a condenser system, producing more contrast and sharper detail than a diffusion enlarger but less contrast and blemish emphasis than a condenser enlarger.

Digester

The reaction vessel in which wood chips or other plant materials are cooked with chemical to separate fiber by dissolving lignin.

Digital Camera

A camera that directly produces a digital image without using film or a scanner in the process

Digital Equipment Corporation

DEC

A proprietary networking protocol developed by Digital Equipment Corporation.

This enables DEC devices to communicate with each other and share data.

Digital holography (synthetic holography

Term used for the generation of images or illustrations in the form of interference patterns through computer calculations. Future applications for digital holography include high-capacity, long-term data storage devices based on plastic foil and ultra-small, forgery-proof markings for packaging, etc.

Digital Imaging Surface

A new and unique surface treatment for both uncoated and coated papers, specifically engineered to enhance paper:toner performace and yield increased print fidelity.

Digital Job Ticket

A vehicle that contains the specifications of a print job. The specifications include the print buyers description of the job and all tasks relating to prepress and printing processes.

Digital Object Identifier

DOI

A digital object identifier (DOI) is both a unique identifier (like the ISBN) and a new kind of permanent hyperlink on the Internet.

As an identifier it provides some of the same benefits as the ISBN — in fact the ISBN itself can be used as the suffix of the DOI, especially where the DOI is used for a book at the title level.

But the benefits of the DOI extend beyond the physical book at the title level — e.g. it can include all the different formats of the book (print, audio, HTML, PDF, e-Book) and also individual chapters, illustrations or other “components.”

It can also facilitate supply-chain interactions in the online environment because of its dual role as both identifier and actual hyperlink.

DOI

Digital Papers
Papers designed for the specific processes of the emerging digital printing technologies. Unlike traditional offset printing, the digital environment is centered in quick turnarounds, short runs, and the ability to vary printed information within the run. Mohawk Digital Papers Navajo, Options, Satin 2.0, and 50 10plus are designed for both digital and offset operations, and are available in popular digital sheet sizes and small rolls.
Digital Photography

Alternative to conventional photography, involves use of cameras that capture images directly in digital form. The image data is transferred by means of special storage media or a data interface to a computer for further processing.

Digital Plates

Plates that can be exposed electronically by digital data sent from a prepress system.

Digital Press

A printing press that receives its image directly from a computer file. The traditional method of using film and conventional plates is eliminated

Digital Printing

Any type of print reproduction method that utilizes electronic files to produce a printed piece from dots of ink, toner, or dye. The printed piece is created directly from a computer file without the need for film or conventional printing plates.

Digital Proof

A proof that has been created by the use of digital files rather than from film.

Digital Signature

A digital code or seal that can be electronically affixed to a computer file or message in which the originator is uniquely identified. The recipient can then make sure the sender is who he or she claims to be.

Digital Subscriber Line or Loop

DSL

A family of technologies that provide digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network.

DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop, although in recent years, many have adopted digital subscriber line as a more marketing-friendly term for the most popular version of DSL, ADSL.

Typically, the download speed of consumer DSL services ranges from 256 kilobits per second (kbit/s) to 24,000kbit/s, depending on DSL technology, line conditions and service level implemented.

Typically, upload speed is lower than download speed for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber

Line ADSL and equal to download speed for Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line SDSL.

Also known as xDSL

Digital Workflow

Now that the Portable Document Format has become a predictable, platform-independent, page-independent entity, which solves many of the limitations of PostScript, we must tackle other print-related workflow issues.

Issues such as trapping, imposition and OPI (picture replacement) play an important role in the success of PDF as a link to the completely digital workflow for the high-end printing and publishing world.

The very essence of digital workflow for printing and publishing involves the integration of many process steps.

The most common processes include: preflighting, trapping, imposition, and OPI serving.

From manual techniques, each of these steps has evolved to
computer operation with manual intervention and now totally automated approaches.

Digitize

Converting an image or other data into a digital form so that it may be processed electronically. The digital representation uses a binary numbering system of 0 or 1 to represent the bits of data. It can then be read by the computer.

DIL

Drop-in-Loading

Film cassette loading feature in all Advanced Photo System cameras that virtually eliminates film-loading problems by automatically accepting the leaderless cassette and thrusting the film forward to the first unexposed frame without any user intervention.

Dimensional Stability

Papers ability to maintain its form and not stretch and shrink as a result of environmental changes, such as temperature and humidity.

DIN

Deutsche Industrie Norm

A system that defines concepts, measurements and application in the industrial sector. Certain DIN norms have been developed for offset print.

DIN sizes

Standard metric sheet sizes widely used outside the United States. The most important ones belong to the A series, in which the next-smaller size has a length corresponding to half that of the next-larger size. They include A4 (210 × 297 mm) and A3 (297 × 410 mm).

Dingbats

Special characters such as a bullet, star, leaf, etc. that can be used on documents as design elements. Special fonts are available that contain sets of dingbats only.

Dioxin

Dioxins are environmentally persistent compounds that find their way into the food chain. They have been linked to chronic diseases such as cancer and are believed to be a cause of birth defects. Dioxins are produced during incineration of wastes and are a contaminant in chemical manufacturing processes. Dioxin is also a by-product of older, chlorine pulp bleaching technologies.

DIP

De-Inked Pulp

Wastepaper pulp which has been de-inked through chemical or mechanical processing

Direct imaging

Refers to a new technology which uses PostScript data from the prepress stage to simultaneously image all the printing forms of a printing press with complete register accuracy. To do this the screen data supplied by a RIP (raster image processor) controls 64 infrared laser diodes, creating small recesses on a special printing foil with an ink-repellent surface, thus revealing an inking layer. The result is a printing foil which can be used for water-free offset printing.

Direct Mail

Used to advertise a product or service offered by a company. The objective is to make an offer to the recipient and encourage a response to the offer. The mail package contains components such as response cards, envelopes, letters, brochures, coupons etc., generally mailed to a specific target audience.

Direct Process Paper

Paper that has a light sensitive coating applied. Used to make prints.

Direct Screen

When the dots are added to the color separations at the same time that the transparency is being photographically separated.

Direct Thermal

A printing method that does not require a ribbon to create an image. The thermal material is heat sensitive. The print head is heated as in thermal transfer and when it comes in contact with the special direct thermal stock, it causes a chemical reaction which creates the image.

Direct Thermal Labels

Pressure sensitive labels that use the direct thermal printing process for imaging. The facestock for these labels must be special direct thermal stock

Direct-to-Plate

Digitally sending files to an imagesetter to produce printing plates instead of film.

Direct-to-Press

Digitally sending files directly to a printing press, eliminating the step of producing negatives and plates.

Dirt

Any imbedded foreign matter or specks that contrast in color to the remainder of the sheet. An instrument, The Papric Counter, is used in laboratories to identify dirt specks measuring 0.04 square millimeters and larger.

Dirt Count

The average amount of dirt in a specific size of paper area. Both virgin and recycled sheets have “dirt,” although recycled paper has significantly higher dirt counts. The dirt should always be small enough not to interfere with the quality of the finished printed piece.

Disbound

A book, pamphlet, or ephemera that is lacking its binding.

Discretionary Hyphen

A hyphen that is manually inserted where a word is to be broken and is displayed only if the word needs to be broken at the end of a line. A discretionary hyphen usually takes precedence over any other type.

Dished

Concave rather than flat pile of paper. Also refers to roll ends of paper that are not flat.

Disk Array

A disk array connects two or more disks through a single controller. To the computer, the array looks like a single volume. The controller shuttles data between each disk, allowing for more optimal SCSI usage. While one disk is writing a block of data, the other disk is available for the next block. In this way, data transfers can be two or three times faster than with a single disk. Disk performance is directly related to how fast the disk spins (rotation rate) and how quickly the drive head can seek, access, and transfer data.

Disk Cache

A process where a portion of the RAM is used to speed up access to data frequently recalled from the system’’s disk storage device. The RAM cache stores any recently viewed data, and since the computer can access data from RAM much faster than from the disk, performance is improved.

Disk Operating System

DOS

An operating system residing in the main memory on a PC.

Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically), most often abbreviated as DOS (not to be confused with the DOS family of disk operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform), refer to operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage devices and the information on them (e.g., file systems for organizing files of all sorts).

Such software is referred to as a disk operating system when the storage devices it manages are made of rotating platters (such as hard disks or floppy disks).

In the early days of microcomputing, memory space was often limited, so the disk operating system was an extension of the operating system.

This component was only loaded if it was needed. Otherwise, disk-access would be limited to low-level operations such as reading and writing disks at the sector-level.

In some cases, the disk operating system component (or even the operating system) was known as DOS.

Sometimes, a disk operating system can refer to the entire operating system if it is loaded off a disk and supports the abstraction and management of disk devices.

An example is DOS/360. On the PC compatible platform, an entire family of operating systems was called DOS.

Dispersion Coating

Coatings manufactured on the basis of water that dry relatively quickly, are odor-free and do not yellow.

Water-based coatings are mainly applied using coating units, though in some cases they are also applied using a press inking unit.

The layer thickness of the coating can reach 3 mm. Water-based coatings are not as glossy as UV coatings.

Display Board

Thick board paper used to hold advertising displays.

Display type

Larger type, such as titles and headings, that stands out from other text.

Dissolving Pulp

A high purity special grade pulp made for processing into cellulose derivatives including rayon and acetate.

Distortion

When an object is forced out of its original shape.

Distributed Printing

Also called distribute and print. Electronically forwarding a file and then printing the job at the point of delivery.

Distributor

Company which purchases paper from mill for resale to printers and end-users. Usually a distributor has protected or franchised product lines and territories. Inventory, warehousing, distribution and transportation of product are among the many services offered to paper buyers. Also called a merchant.

Dithering

Since computer monitors and different operating systems may have different color palettes, an image originating on one system may not look the same when viewed on another system. The computer handles this problem with dithering, which creates additional colors and shades by interspersing pixels of different colors to simulate the original colors. Dithering can be used to create patterns, backgrounds, fills, and shading, as well as, for creating halftones for printing. ‘’Anti-aliasing’’ techniques use dithering to make jagged lines appear smoother on a screen. It is also used when creating blends to eliminated banding.

Dividers

Tabbed sheets of index or other heavy stock, used to identify and separate specific sections of a book; used in loose-leaf and bound books.

DJ

Dust Jacket

A removable paper wrapper that encloses a book to protect it from dirt.

Dust jackets date from the early 19th century, but they came into more common use in the early 20th century as a means to advertise the book to potential buyers.

Also known as dust wrapper or book jacket.

DLL

A group of small programs that are used by larger programs but are linked at run time or load time instead of when the larger program is loaded. Since the program is not loaded until it is needed, it saves space in the RAM. An example of these small programs would be one that allows a larger program to communicate with a printer. Code can be linked to establish external references to various libraries.

Dmax

The highest level of density on a film negative.

DNR

Department of Natural Resources.

The state of Washington Agency, separate from the executive branch, responsible for implementing the Forest Practices Act (RCW 76.09) and accompanying rules, and for fiduciary management of state-owned lands.

DNS

Domain Name System

A system used to look up and resolve host IP addresses.

It uses alphabetic names to numeric IP addresses, which allows you to only have to remember address names such as mycompany.com instead of lots of numbers such as 206.214.55.4.

The domain name system stores and associates many types of information with domain names, but most importantly, it translates domain names (computer hostnames) to IP addresses.

It also lists mail exchange servers accepting e-mail for each domain. In providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service, DNS is an essential component of contemporary Internet use.

Useful for several reasons, the DNS pre-eminently makes it possible to attach easy-to-remember domain names (such as “fineprintnyc.com”) to hard-to-remember IP addresses (such as 66.230.200.100).

People take advantage of this when they recite URLs and e-mail addresses.

In a subsidiary function, the domain name system makes it possible for people to assign authoritative names without needing to communicate with a central registrar each time.

Docking Station

A module connected to a computer which serves as a base into which a digital camera or storage device is placed to download or transfer images into the computer

Doctored

A book that has been repaired, restored, or even added to. Also known as made-up.

Document management

Rules and measures applied to the creation, administration, distribution and archiving of documents.

Document Object Model

An XML or HTML interface consisting of objects and methods used by programs and scripts to dynamically access and revise the content structure and style of documents.

Document paper

Document paper is one of the highest grades of paper and bears a real watermark. The grade is generally used for official documents and certificates, and features special properties.

Dodging

Holding back the image-forming light from a part of the image projected on an enlarger easel during part of the basic exposure time to make that area of the print lighter.

DOE

Department of Ecology

The state of Washington agency, within the executive branch, responsible for regulating the State Environmental Protection Act. DOE is principally concerned with land uses affecting water quality and the issuance of consumption use permits of water.

Dog-Eared

Book pages which have been folded over in the corners. Some people do this to mark their place in a book.

DOI

Digital Object Identifier

A digital object identifier (DOI) is both a unique identifier (like the ISBN) and a new kind of permanent hyperlink on the Internet.

As an identifier it provides some of the same benefits as the ISBN — in fact the ISBN itself can be used as the suffix of the DOI, especially where the DOI is used for a book at the title level.

But the benefits of the DOI extend beyond the physical book at the title level — e.g. it can include all the different formats of the book (print, audio, HTML, PDF, e-Book) and also individual chapters, illustrations or other “components.”

It can also facilitate supply-chain interactions in the online environment because of its dual role as both identifier and actual hyperlink.

DOI

Dollar String

Dollar amounts that relate to the donation history of the recipient, generally found on the response card or personalized letter.

DOM

Document Object Model

An XML or HTML interface consisting of objects and methods used by programs and scripts to dynamically access and revise the content structure and style of documents.

Domain

A managed group of users and host systems, such as .edu (educational institution), .com (business), .gov (government), and .org (non-profit organization) on the Internet.

Domain Name

An alphabetic name following the @ symbol in an Internet address, identifying an Internet site. This unique name is registered and cannot be used by anyone else. It is generally composed of the organization’’s name and the top level host type, such as organization.com.

Dongle

A security device that attaches to a computer and blocks or controls the access to certain applications.

DOS

Disk Operating System

An operating system residing in the main memory on a PC.

Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically), most often abbreviated as DOS (not to be confused with the DOS family of disk operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform), refer to operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage devices and the information on them (e.g., file systems for organizing files of all sorts).

Such software is referred to as a disk operating system when the storage devices it manages are made of rotating platters (such as hard disks or floppy disks).

In the early days of microcomputing, memory space was often limited, so the disk operating system was an extension of the operating system.

This component was only loaded if it was needed. Otherwise, disk-access would be limited to low-level operations such as reading and writing disks at the sector-level.

In some cases, the disk operating system component (or even the operating system) was known as DOS.

Sometimes, a disk operating system can refer to the entire operating system if it is loaded off a disk and supports the abstraction and management of disk devices.

An example is DOS/360. On the PC compatible platform, an entire family of operating systems was called DOS.

Dos-a-Dos

Two separate books bound together so that each cover represents the cover for a different title.

The Ace paperbacks or many science fiction books were issued this way.

Dot

A single point or smallest part of an image that is identifiable. Also referred to as a pixel, spot or pel.

Dot Angle

The angle of the dot is the angle at which the dots chain together. The problem with most computer graphics programs is that the angles of the halftones are generally great for offset printing but not as effective for silk screen printing.

Most computer programs use 45 degrees as the default angle. Actually, 20 to 25 degrees is good for basic halftone work. If you are doing a process color job you can try Cyan 15, Magenta 45, Yellow and Black 75, or Cyan 22.5, Magenta 52.5, Yellow and Black 82.5.

Dot drop out

Refers to tonal values and the point up to which highlight dots are burnt out or are just available, expressed as a percentage of area coverage. The drop-out point of tone values can be determined by printing the related test wedges.

Dot Etching

Color correction of an image resulting from the alteration of the halftone dot size.

Dot Gain

When halftone dots print larger on the press than what they originally were on the plate or film, resulting in a loss of detail and lower contrast in the image.

This results in some loss of detail. Some degree of dot gain is an unnavoidable part of the printing process and there are settings in a number of desktop publishing tools to allow for this.

It is predictable to a point and can be compensated for when film and plates are produced Dot gain often occurs in long press runs, due to plates and/or pressure settings wearing or changing through out the run.

Adobe Photoshop, in particular, has settings to allow for dot gain under it’s color settings preferences.

Dot Matrix Printer

An impact printer that forms characters and graphics by printing a series of dots.

Dot Pitch

The diagonal measurement between phosphor dots on a display screen, measured in millimeters. The smaller the measurement, the better the image will be.

Dot Slurring

Smearing or elongation at the trailing edges of halftone dots.

Dot Spread

Also known as Dot Gain – The enlargement of halftone dots on the press which results in a loss of detail and makes the image darker. Dot gain occurs most often in long press runs, when plates and/or pressure settings can wear or change.

Dot touch

Contact made between two dots in the simulation of gray levels presented in halftone cells. With a square dot, dot touch will occur at a gray value of about 40 percent, with a round dot it will only occur at about 60 percent, and with an elliptical dot it will occur at 50 and 75 percent. With coarser screens, such as in laser printers, dot touch is less visible.

Dots, Halftone

The individual subdivisions of a printed surface created with a halftone screen.

Double

Term given to a word that has erroneously been typeset twice in a text.

Double Black Printing

Printing the same image in the same color twice to increase the density of that color. Done with black to get it dense enough

Double Burning

The process of using two or more negatives to burn one complete image onto a plate or print.

Double Coated

Coating a paper twice on one side. Should not be confused with coating on both sides.

Double Deckle

Paper that has is deckled on two parallel edges.

Double Elephant Folio

A book that is up to 50” tall.

Double Exposure

Two pictures taken on one frame of film, or two images printed on one piece of photographic paper.

Double Loop Wire Binding

Binding that consists of a series of double wire loops from a continuous pre-formed wire which are inserted into pages that have been punched with square or round holes.

Double page spread

two facing pages of newspaper or magazine where the textual material on the left hand side continues across to the right hand side. Abbreviated to DPS.

Double Parallel Fold

A type of fold where the piece is folded in half and then folded in half again. The folds are parallel to each other. Also known as a quarter fold.

Double Stub

A unit set having two perforated and glued stubs. Generally used to create two sets once the initial use and separation of the form is completed.

Double Varnish

Two applications of press varnish.

double-black halftone printing

A means of extending the range of density available with printing ink by printing twice with black ink, using two specially prepared halftone negatives. Also called double-black duotone.

double-dot halftone

Two halftone negatives combined onto one printing plate, having greater tonal range than a conventional halftone negatives. One negative reproduces highlight and shadows, the other middle tones. This is not to be confused with duotone or double-black printing.

Double-sided printing

Printing of the front and back sides of a page with two different printing plates.

double-thick cover stock

A cover stock composed of two sheets of 65 lb. Cover stock laminated together.

Doubling

1.In printing, a press problem that generally occurs when sheets make contact with the blanket twice, once just before the impression point and the second time at the impression point, resulting in a double image. At times, with certain papers, the feeder will feed two sheets instead of one, and when pressures are extreme or out of balance, the blanket may slip at the pressure point, resulting in a slur or double image.

  1. In stamping, a double impression in which the second impression or “hit” does not register perfectly over the first one.
doughnut hickey

A printing defect consisting of a solid printed area surrounded by an unprinted area.

Download
  1. A process of receiving files, which are being copied from another computer, onto your computer. 2. Loading a complete font description into a printers memory, so that printing characters with that font is possible.
Downloadable Font

A printer font stored on disk that can be loaded into the printer’’s memory, in comparison to a font within a cartridge that must be plugged into the printer.

Downstream

A kind of transmission by which information or data flows from a server to an end user.

Downtime

Duration of an unscheduled stoppage of machines or equipment (printing presses, papermaking machines, typesetting equipment, etc.), usually caused by malfunction.

DPBC

Delivery Point Bar Code/r/n/r/nA ZIP+4 bar code which consists of 2 additional digits (10 additional bars). The 2 additional digits represent the first 2 digits of the primary address.

DPI

Dots Per Inch

A measurement of resolution of input devices, output devices and display devices. The measurement is stated with the horizontal measurement first and the vertical measurement second. The resolution of 800 × 600 indicates 800 dots per inch horizontally and 600 dots per inch vertically.

drag

Register trouble when the dot is enlarged toward the back (nongripper edge) of the sheet. See Slur.

Drag and Drop

Clicking on an item or section and moving it to another location in that same file or to another file.

Drawdown

A term used to describe an ink chemist’s method of roughly determining coating or ink. The application (by a blade or a bar) of a thin film of coating or ink to a piece of paper.

Drawing Paper

Dull finished paper that is of good quality and stable enough to withstand erasing

Drawn on cover

A paper book cover, which is attached to the sewn book by gluing the spine and approximately 8mm on the front and back covers.

Drier

A substance which is added to ink to hasten the drying time.

driers

Wet paper passes through these large cylindrical steam heated rolls that dry paper webs. The dry-end of the paper machine.

Drilling

Piercing of stacks of papers in a precision manner with round hollow drills at high speeds. Loose-leaf notebook paper is an example of drilled paper.

Driver

A program that controls a peripheral device such as a printer, scanner, disk drive and keyboard. Some driver programs, such as the one for the keyboard, come with the operating system. Other drivers must be loaded when the device is connected.

Drop Cap

A large initial letter at the start of the paragraph that drops into the line or lines of text below

Drop Folio

A page number located at the bottom of the page.

Drop Out
  1. A printed halftone that does not have screen dots in the background or highlight areas due to overexposure during the camera work. 2. Colors that cannot be detected by optical reading devices.
Drop Shadow

A rule or screen tint that falls behind an illustration, box or type. It is offset from the item and used to give a three-dimensional shadow effect.

Dropout Halftone

A halftone consisting of black and white only, all grays are dropped out of the negative. A dropout halftone is created by shooting the photograph as line art.

Drum Scanner

A piece of equipment on which the original transparency is wrapped around a plastic cylinder, used in the making of color separations.

Dry Back

The color change which occurs when ink dries.

Dry Finish

A paper stock with a rough unglazed finish produced by calendaring it through a waterless process.

Dry Offset

Same as letterset printing.

Dry Transfer

Characters, ornaments, etc. that can be transferred to the artwork by rubbing them off the back of the transfer sheet. The most popular is Letraset.

Dry-End

On the paper machine, it is the section where the dryers, cutters, slitters and reels are located.

Dry-Gum Label Stock

Stock coated with a remoistenable adhesive, which must have moisture applied to activate the adhesive. Dry-gum label stock does not require a liner over the adhesive.

Dryer

A heat tunnel on a web press in which the final printed product passes through. The heat tunnel dries the ink. Web presses with the heat tunnel are called heat-set webs.

Drying Time

The time it takes for an ink to become rub- or tack-free.

DSL

Digital Subscriber Line or Loop

A family of technologies that provide digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network.

DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop, although in recent years, many have adopted digital subscriber line as a more marketing-friendly term for the most popular version of DSL, ADSL.

Typically, the download speed of consumer DSL services ranges from 256 kilobits per second (kbit/s) to 24,000kbit/s, depending on DSL technology, line conditions and service level implemented.

Typically, upload speed is lower than download speed for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber

Line ADSL and equal to download speed for Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line SDSL.

Also known as xDSL

DTP

Desktop Publishing

The use of personal computers, or workstations, to design and produce digital documents that are output to paper, film or plates.

Can be used to design products of any type

Dual Web Label/Form

Dual web construction consists of joining a form and a label together side by side with a seamed glue line to form one single web.

Ductus

A typographic term used to describe the various elements of a character, such as the line, weight and direction in which each line is drawn. The term is derived from the Latin verb “ducere” (to lead), and was burrowed from calligraphy, where it is used to describe how the pen is held.

Dull Finish

A flat finish that has been supercalendered when manufactured. It is slightly smoother that a matte finish.

Dummy
  1. A mock layout created to simulate the final product.

The complexity of the dummy can range from a simple mockup showing size and with a hand drawn sketch of the layout to one showing all the details exactly as the finished product will appear.

  1. A mockup of a book that is created to represent the physical appearance, including actual arrangement of the printed matter and illustrations, of a forthcoming book-to-book buyers.

Modern trade publishing has replaced the use of dummies with materials such as advance reading copies and uncorrected proofs.

Dummy text

Term used for sample text, the purpose of which is to communicate the intended typographic impression of layouted pages or to reserve a space. Dummy text should be instantly recognizable as such – otherwise, as occasionally happens, it may erroneously be printed.

DuoDecimo

A book approximately seven to eight inches tall.

Also see 12mo.

Duogravure

An image made by double printing on a gravure press, duogravure is used to deepen tones or add color.

Duotone
  1. An electronic image in which the picture elements have only two intensity values; black and white. 2. In printing, a duotone is printed in two colors from plates that were made from films that had the screen angles different from each other.
Dupe Elimination

The part of the merge/purge process that identifies and separates duplicate addresses so that the mailing does not go the the same person more than once.

Duplex board

A multi-layer carton with a gray intermediate ply, gray back and wood-free or almost wood-free coat on one side.

Duplex Coating

When both sides of the paper are coated at the same time.

Duplex images

Images used to enlarge the tonal value range of a grayscale image in print. A black/white reproduction, for example, can contain up to 256 grayscales

Duplex Paper

A paper made by pasting two different thinner sheets together, resulting in paper with a different color or finish on both sides.

Duplexing

The ability to print both sides of a sheet without having to turn the sheet over.

Duplicator
  1. An offset press used for low volume quick printing. Not recommended for close register or high quality printing due to the lack of devices necessary to achieve this type of printing. 2. An office machine that will print copies, such as a high speed copier, photocopier or mimeograph.
Durability

Natural resistance of wood to attack by decay fungi, insects and marine borers

Dust Jacket

DJ

A removable paper wrapper that encloses a book to protect it from dirt.

Dust jackets date from the early 19th century, but they came into more common use in the early 20th century as a means to advertise the book to potential buyers.

Also known as dust wrapper or book jacket.

Dust Wrapper

DW

A removable paper wrapper that encloses a book to protect it from dirt.

Dust jackets date from the early 19th century, but they came into more common use in the early 20th century as a means to advertise the book to potential buyers.

Also known as dust Jacket or book jacket.

Dusting

The accumulation of loose particles from the paper on the nonimage areas of the blanket. Particles are of very small size.

DW

Dust Wrapper

A removable paper wrapper that encloses a book to protect it from dirt.

Dust jackets date from the early 19th century, but they came into more common use in the early 20th century as a means to advertise the book to potential buyers.

Also known as dust Jacket or book jacket.

DX Data Exchange

Electrical coding system employed in 35 mm format film that communicates film speed, type and exposure length to the camera.

Dye

An ink colorant that is soluble in vehicle or solvent.

Dye Sublimation

A color printing technology in which solid dye pigments are heated, changing them directly into a gas. When the dye, in the form of a gas, makes contact with a specially coated paper, it changes back into a solid. The individual spots of dye created with the thermal dye sublimation process blend together to make an almost continuous tone image similar to an actual photograph.

Dye Transfer

Similar in appearance to a color photograph but different in the important respect that it is produced from a transparency by printing continuous tones of color dyes.

Dyeline Paper

Paper used as proofs for checking the completeness, position and content of printing copy./r/n/r/nThe basis for this was the diazotype process patented in 1917 by the Benedictine father Gustav Kögel.

Dylux Proof

A special type of photosensitive paper, developed by DuPont, which is sensitized on two sides and used to make blueline proofs of press negatives.

Dynamic Focus

A feature that allows for the selection of focus positions that are not necessarily centered but may be to the right or left of the center of the viewfinder in a digital camera.

Dynamic Indexing

The capability to automatically list and sort a group of URLs, records, etc.

Dynamic Range

Scanner’s ability to capture an image’s gradations from the lightest highlight to the darkest shadow.

Please feel free to contact us

 • 
212.619.5446 • Email • 212.883.8088
Corporate Headquarters

315 Madison Avenue, NYC 10017
Open Monday - Friday: 9:30am-5:30pm
*No Walk-In Appointments*

Open in Google Maps
Production Facility

629 Grove Street, Jersey City, NJ 07310
Open Monday - Friday: 9:30AM - 4:00PM
*No Walk-In Appointments*


Browse Our Products

All Rights Reserved  © 2020 Fine Print, Inc  Terms of Use  Privacy Policy