Glossary of Printing Terms:E

E Commerce

Electronic Commerce Server

This file server software was developed to help organizations conduct electronic commerce activities over the Internet.

E-book

Refers to both the electronic version of a text that can be purchased as a CD or downloaded from the Internet and the electronic device that can be used to display such texts.

The latter is, however, properly called an “e-book reader”.

E-ddress

An e-mail address.

This term was first provided to Rainwater Press by Scott O’Neill of Accuracy First Printing in Denver, CO.

e-mail

Electronic Mail

A store and forward method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.

The term “e-mail” (as a noun or verb) applies both to the Internet e-mail system based on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and to intranet systems allowing users within one organization to e-mail each other.

Often these workgroup collaboration organizations may use the Internet protocols for internal e-mail service.

E-Payment System

A system in which purchases and payments are processed electronically using the Internet. Such systems often employ trust centers and digital signatures in order to prevent theft and misuse of data and information. E-payment systems generally require a complex IT infrastructure.

E-Procurement

The business-to-business purchase and sale of supplies and services over the Internet. Also referred to as web-enabled electronic purchasing. It automates the traditional manual and paper-based procurement process, thus resulting in reduced maverick buying, lower transaction costs, lower cycle times, and increased efficiency.

E-scale

A clear plastic scale containing capital E’’s in different point sizes.

It is used to determine the point size of type.

E-Zine

Stands for electronic magazine and is a name for a web site which is either (a) modeled after a print magazine or (b) a magazine that is only available online or through email.

E.C.H. Will Sheeter

Continuous automatic cut-size sheeter, ream wrapper, ream labeler, ream accumulator, case packer, lidder, bander and palletizer.

EAN

European Article Numbering System

The standard bar code for retail food products that is used internationally.

Earned Rate

The actual cost of advertising based on volume and frequency of advertising.

EAS

Electronic Article Surveillance

An EAS device is attached and/or adhered to assets or merchandise which will alarm when passed through an EAS detection device in an active state.

Multiple types of EAS labels exist; the three most common types are AM (Acousto-Magnetic), EM (electro-magnetic), and RF (Radio-Frequency).

The three different types work only within their respective detection units.

EAS Label

A device, applied to a product, which will set off an alarm system if the it has not been properly deactivated. There are several types of EAS labels. The most common types are AM (Acousto-Magnetic), EM (Electro-magnetic) and RF (Radio Frequency). Each has its own detection system.

Easel

A device to hold photographic paper flat during exposure, usually equipped with an adjustable metal mask for framing.

EB Ink

Electron Beam Color

A printing ink that is dried with the use of electron beams. Similar to UV inks, which are cured by ultraviolet light, EB inks are cured by means of polymerization, which is made possible by the direct effect of the electrons on polymerizable substances.

Unlike UV inks, special initiators are not required for EB inks and as a result EB inks are easier to store. The special advantage of EB inks is, however, the thickness of the layers that can be applied, as the electron beams penetrate deeply.

EBXML

E-Business Extensible Markup Language

A language developed to standardize the use of XML language for general electronic business integration so that organizations around the world could collaborate and conduct business within any single marketplace.

It was created to provide a means for interoperability amongst and between business partners using XML in order to increase integration efficiencies and results.

ECF

Elemental Chlorine Free

Pulp bleached without the use of elemental chlorine. Generally this is virgin fiber bleached with chlorine dioxide.

ECG Technology Enhanced Cubic Grain

A technology that provides amplified sharpness in Kodak Advantix 100-speed film.

ECL

Extended Content Labels

The ECL label is used to add content to a label. The limited space on a standard label makes it difficult to display all of the content that is required on some labels. Because reducing the type size affects the readability, some companies have started to use an extended content label (ECL) to satisfy their content needs. Some ECL labels are printed on the back side of the label and some have extra folded pieces attached that are unfolded to reveal the additional content.

Edge Curl

See curl.

Edge Gluing

Unit sets manufactured without a stub to bind them together can be attached to each other by being glued along one of the edges with a fugitive glue that allows the parts to be easily torn apart.

Edge Lift

When the edge of a label lifts off the surface that it is applied to. This condition is affected by the adhesive’’s bond strength, the flexibility of the facestock. It is most commonly seen on surfaces that have a small diameter curve to them.

Edge Preparation

The treatment of a sheet of paper to create a stronger bind.

Edge Sealant

A sealing agent placed at the leading and trailing edges of the plate to secure the laydown of the plate to the plate cylinder for press runs.

Edges

The top, bottom, and un-hinged outer sides of a book.

Edges Gilt

The edges of the pages of a book after they have been cut smooth and colored, usually with gold paint.

See also all Gilt Edges.

Edgeworn

Wear along the edges of hardback book covers.

EDI

Electronic Data Interchange

EDI is a set of standards for structuring information to be electronically exchanged between and within businesses, organizations, government entities and other groups.

The standards describe structures that emulate documents, for example purchase orders to automate purchasing.

The term EDI is also used to refer to the implementation and operation of systems and processes for creating, transmitting, and receiving EDI documents.

Despite being relatively unheralded, in this era of technologies such as XML services, the Internet and the World Wide Web, EDI is still the data format used by the vast majority of electronic commerce transactions in the world.

Edit

To modify and correct a manuscript to conform to the publisher’s standards.

Edited

Prepared for publication.

EDItEUR

EDItEUR is an organization established and sponsored by the Federation of European Publishers, the European Booksellers Federation and the European Bureau of Library, Information & Documentation Associations, to co-ordinate the development, promotion and implementation of electronic commerce in the international books and serials sector.

EDItEUR

Edition

All copies of a book that are printed from the same plates or one setting of type.

An edition can have more than one printing.

For example, if 300 copies of a book are printed on September 15, and 200 copies are printed from the same plates on November 24, all 500 copies are part of the same edition.

Edition Bind

Alternate term for Case bind.

Edition De Luxe

An edition of a book that has been specially printed and bound for its fine appearance.

Sometimes refers to limited editions with special leather or decorated cloth bindings.

Editor

A computer program used to modify data files by adding, deleting or changing text.

Editor In Chief

The top editor at a magazine or book publisher responsible for all editorial decisions.

Editorial Assistant

Support staff for the editorial department.

Editorial Board

A group of experts providing direction and strategy assistance to a magazine’s editor-ial staff and may set edi-torial policy.

Editorial Calender

A yearly schedule of topics and/or articles planned for upcoming issues of a magazine. Most calendars run from January through December, although the calendars of snow-related publications will cover the winter season,
usually from fall to spring the following year.

Editorial Inventory

Unpublished articles in a magazine’s inventory for future use.

Editorial System

An electronic publishing system dedicated to copy creation and manuscript preparation.

EDM

Electronic Document Management

The creation, storage, control, and maintenance of documents is managed by EDM software. Some of the requirements include the following functions: check-in/check-out, version control, full text retrieval, multi-level security, and management functions like archiving.

EDM Die

Die produced using Electronic Discharge Machining.

EDP

Electronic Data Processing

A broad term interpreted to mean the science of using computers to manipulate data.

EDPP

Electronic Document and Printing Professional

Edutainment

Content that is both educational and entertaining for the user.

Effect coating

Coatings used to lend a printed product a unique appearance or quality; usually refers to pigmented coatings, which vary greatly according to the pigments in the ink and the size and shape of the particles.

Effective Audience

A term used in advertising to calculate the number of readers for a magazine. It consists of the in-home-audience plus 50% of the out-of-home audience.

EFT

Electronic Funds Transfer

The electronic transmission of money between financial institutions.

EGA

Enhanced Graphics Adapter

A graphics standard for the PC which can be added or built into a system to give sharper characters and improved color with the correct display device. Standard EGA resolution is 640 by 350 dots in any 16 out of 64 colors.

Eggshell Finish

Generally refers to a book grade of paper that has a fairly rough finish that resembles the surface of an egg.

Egyptian

A term for a style of type faces having square serifs and almost uniform thickness of strokes.

Eight sheet

A poster measuring 60 × 80in (153 × 203cm) and, traditionally, made up of eight individual sheets.

Eight-Bit Color/Grayscale or 8-Bit Color/Grayscale

In 8-bit color mode, the color monitor uses 8 bits for each pixel, making it possible to display 2 to the 8th power (256) different colors or shades of gray.

Eight-Up

The imposition of eight items to be printed on the same sheet in order to take advantage of full press capacity and minimize paper consumption.

Elastic Memory

The attempt that a material makes to return to its original size or shape once it has been elongated.

Elastomeric

Flexible and resilient.

ELBS

English Language Book Society

A scheme subsidised by the British government through the British Council for the republication of educational and technical titles for use in the developing world. The name was subsequently changed to the Educational Low-Priced Books Scheme, which is, however, scheduled to disappear in its present form in 1997.

Electrical

The electrical performance of the tape samples is measured and compared to the VHS-standard reference tape (the JVC VRT-2).

The published numbers represent how much better (+) or worse (-) then the industry standard tape each tape sample performed (the JVC VRT-2 scores 0.0 for every parameter).

Electron Charge Deposition

An image is created with the use of an electron cartridge which creates a negative charge on a nonconductive surface. The nonconductive surface consists of a drum which attracts a magnetic toner. The toner is then fixed to the substrate with a cold fusion process. A static electric charge is used to draw the toner particles from the drum onto the substrate. A high pressure roller fuses the toner to the substrate. Also know as ionography or ion deposition printing.

Electronic Article Surveillance

A technique used to provide anti-theft protection. A EAS label or tag is applied to the product and is used along with EAS detection equipment to detect if an item is being removed without authorization.

The EAS systems are used in stores, data centers and libraries. When the item is purchased or checked out, the label is made inactive by the use of a deactivation device. If the label has not been properly deactivated it will set off an alarm when passing through the electronic surveillance detector.

Electronic Color Scanner

High speed computer, which instantly calculates the necessary color correction by measuring the original copy.

Electronic Commerce

E-commerce

Buying and selling goods and services and paying for them electronically over the Internet.

Electronic Composition

The assembly of characters into words, lines and paragraphs of text or body matter with graphic elements in page layout form in digital format for reproduction by printing.

Electronic Data Interchange

EDI

EDI is a set of standards for structuring information to be electronically exchanged between and within businesses, organizations, government entities and other groups.

The standards describe structures that emulate documents, for example purchase orders to automate purchasing.

The term EDI is also used to refer to the implementation and operation of systems and processes for creating, transmitting, and receiving EDI documents.

Despite being relatively unheralded, in this era of technologies such as XML services, the Internet and the World Wide Web, EDI is still the data format used by the vast majority of electronic commerce transactions in the world.

Electronic Data Processing

EDP

A broad term interpreted to mean the science of using computers to manipulate data.

Electronic Dot Generation

Electronically producing halftones on prepress systems or scanners.

Electronic Funds Transfer

EFT

The electronic transmission of money between financial institutions.

Electronic Image Assembly

Assembly of new image from portions of existing images or elements using a computer.

Electronic Mail

E-mail

Software program that allows the exchange of computer-generated messages between users over a network.

Electronic Mail Address

A user identifier allowing the exchange of messages over a network such as the Internet. An Internet e-mail address is typically formatted userid@organization.com

Electronic Mechanicals

Digital page layout files created on a desktop publishing system. Electronic mechanicals commonly contain text and graphics in EPS, TIFF or similar file formats. They are a replacement for conventional paste-up boards.

Electronic Memory

Disk, magnetic tape, or other memory device that holds digital information.

Electronic Page Assembly

Assembly and manipulation of type, graphics, and other visual elements on a computer screen.

Electronic Paper

In an attempt to combine the electronic activation of a monitor with the superior legibility of printed paper, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and various manufacturers are working on what is known as electronic paper.

In one version, the paper contains tiny spheres with different colors on different sides, which rotate when exposed to electric fields and thus present different colors. Another type of electronic paper contains small, transparent capsules filled with dye and white particles. When an electrical field is applied, these particles float to the top, making the surface of the paper look white. Otherwise, the effect of the dye is dominant.

Electronic Printing
  1. The means of producing images using plateless, non-impact systems.

  2. In digital printing, any technology that reproduces pages without the use of traditional ink, water or chemistry.

Electronic Proof

A process of generating a prepress proof in which paper is electronically exposed to the color separation negatives and passed through electrically charged pigmented toners, which adhere electrostatically, resulting in the finished proof.

Electronic Publishing

EP

A configuration of hardware and software used for the production of documents.

Printing with a device that is computer driven and has the ability to change images from one copy to the next.

The term includes desktop publishing and high-end systems.

Electronic Publishing System

EPS

Any computer program that can perform typography and/or page layout for electronic documents. A desktop publishing system is an example of an EPS.

Electronic Retouching.

Using a computer to enhance or correct a scanned photograph.

Electronic signature

See digital signature.

Electrophotography

A printing process that uses electric charges to create an image on a photoconductive surface that acts as the printing plate. Toner attaches to the charged areas and then is transfers to the paper as it goes through the printer. This surface is cleared after each image and imaged again for the next copy. This technology is used in photocopiers and laser printers.

Electrostatic Copying

Process using an intermediary plate or drum (like Xerography) or coated take-off sheet (like Electrofax®) which is electrically charged to attract powder or liquid developer only to the image area.

Electrostatic Plates

Plates used in high-speed laser printing that make use of electrostatic forces.

Electrostatic Printing

A printing process that uses electrostatic charges to transfer images onto a surface which then attracts toner in only the charged areas. The toner is bonded to the sheet by heat.

Electrotype

A copy of a model which is created by the deposition of copper by a galvanic action.

Elemental Chlorine Free

ECF

ECF papers are made exclusively with pulp that uses chlorine dioxide rather than elemental chlorine gas as a bleaching agent. This virtually eliminates the discharge of detectable dioxins in the effluent of pulp manufacturing facilities.

Elephant Folio

A book about 23 inches tall.

Elite Type

A standard typewriter typeface with 12 characters to the inch.

Ellipsis

1.Three spaced periods (…) used to indicate the omission of a word(s) from a sentence or phrase.

  1. In Macintosh and Windows operating systems, menu options followed by an ellipsis will bring up a dialog box when selected.
Elliptical Dot

A elongated dot used in halftone photography, which improves the gradation of midtones and produces more dense shadows. Also referred to as a chain dot.

Elmendorf Test

A test to determine the tear resistance of a paper.

Elongation

The length a material will stretch to before breaking. Generally stated as a percentage of the oringinal size.

ELT

English Language Teaching

An important sector of the educational book market.

Em

A typographical unit of measurement of space exactly as high and wide as the point size of the typeface being used.

Em Dash

A dash the width of one em, equal to two zero’’s or three dashes. They are used to separate parenthetical phrases within a sentence.

Em Space

A space an “em” wide, equal to the width of two zero’’s.

email

Electronic Mail

A store and forward method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.

The term “e-mail” (as a noun or verb) applies both to the Internet e-mail system based on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and to intranet systems allowing users within one organization to e-mail each other.

Often these workgroup collaboration organizations may use the Internet protocols for internal e-mail service.

Embed

Implies the inclusion of elements and data into a computer file necessary to maintain or change the elements when used remotely.

Embedments

Materials such as a product replica, for example, are suspended in a clear substrate, usually poured acrylic or Lucite®.

Embossed Finish

The surface of the paper is textured by a process where the paper passes through engraved steel rolls.

Embossed Leather

A leather binding that has been printed with a raised design.

Embossing

A process of imprinting an image by applying pressure to the back side of a material to alter the surface, giving it a three dimensional or raised effect.

Embroidery

Stitching a design into fabric through the use of high-speed, computer-controlled sewing machines.

Artwork must first be “digitized,” which is the specialized process of converting two-dimensional artwork into stitches or thread. A particular format of art such as a jpeg, tif, eps, or bmp, cannot be converted into an embroidery tape.

The digitizer must actually recreate the artwork using stitches. Then it programs the sewing machine to sew a specific design, in a specific color, with a specific type of stitch. This is the process known as digitizing.

Emoticon

Short for emotion icon. It is made up of punctuation characters that indicate the emotions of the author of an email message. Examples are :-) Joking, ;-) Winking, :-O Bored, :-< Frowning, :-( Sad.

Emulation

The ability of a program or device to imitate another program or device so that it can run software that is programmed to run on a specific printer or computer, such as programs that enable a Mac to run as a PC.

Emulsion

A light-sensitive coating on photographic film and plates.

Emulsion Adhesive

Aqueous, Water Based

A dispersion of fine particles or globules in another liquid. Many P.S. adhesives are emulsion systems.

Emulsion Down/Emulsion Up

Film whose emulsion side faces down (away from the viewer) or up (toward the viewer) when ready to make a plate or stencil. Abbreviated ED, EU. Also called E up/down and face down/face up.

Emulsion Side

The side of the film coated with emulsion. In contact printing and enlarging, the emulsion side of the film-dull side-should face the emulsion side of the photo paper-shiny side.

En

A unit of measurement equal to half an em in the same point size and typeface, which is the same width as a zero.

En Dash

A dash the width of one en, or equal to the size of a zero. They are used to represent ’’to’’ or ’’through’’ in numerical ranges such as 1-9.

En Space

A space an “en” wide, equal to the width of one zero.

Enamel

Refers to a coated paper or to a coating material on paper. It gives the paper a shiny, glossy surface.

Enamel Paper

Alternate term for Coated paper with gloss finish.

Encapsulated PostScript

EPS

A file format that can contain vector graphics or bitmap images.

Encode

The act of assigning a code to a program. It also means the same thing as encrypting.

Encryption

The scrambling of data located in files so as to make it unintelligible until it is decrypted. This is used for data such as credit card numbers as it goes across the Internet.

End Clearance Angle

The end clearance angle is the angle on the back side of the tip angle to provide clearance.

End Leaf

The sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover, also referred to as end sheet.

End Mill

Usually a multi-fluted cutting tool generally used in machining operations.

While some have straight flutes, most are spiraled and are used for heavy cuts at low speeds.

End of File

EOF

The completion of a set of data.

End Sheet

The sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover, also referred to as end leaf.

Endemism

Refers to plant and animal species native or confined to a particular locality or region.

Endpaper

The pages of heavy cartridge paper at the front and back of a hardback book which join the book block to the hardback binding; sometimes used for maps or carrying a decorative colour or design.

Endpapers

EP

The plain white, colored, decorated, or printed paper that is at the front and end of a book, one half of which is pasted down to the binding.

The endpapers are used to give a finished look to the binding.

EnergyStar

A certificate issued for computers and other products when they are compliant with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’’s energy saving requirements (U.S. EPA).

Engine

The actual printing components of a laser printer.

English Finish

A smooth finish on uncoated paper which is smoother than a machine finish but not as smooth as a supercalendered finish. Paper with an English finish is often used in letterpress printing when a flexible and soft consistency is required for imprinting processes.

Engraver

Person who makes a plate for engraving. Also may refer to trade camera service.

Engraving

A printing plate, also called a die, that has had the image etched into the surface.

Enhanced Back-Printing

An Advanced Photo System feature available in some system cameras that enables users to encode detailed information at the time of picture-taking, such as the date and time of exposure, camera settings, roll title or other custom information for subsequent printing onto the back of their photographs. See also Back-printing.

Enhanced Multi-Color Printing

Full color printing with six or more process colors instead of the standard four colors. Also referred to as high-fidelity printing.

Enlargement

A copy of an original that has been increased in size.

Enlargement Factor

Ratio of the size of the reproduction to the original size of the object.

Enlargement scale

See “reproduction scale”.

Enlarger

A device consisting of a light source, a negative holder, and a lens, and means of adjusting these to project an enlarged image from a negative onto a sheet of photographic paper.

Entry BMC

Bulk Mail Center (BMC), including its satellite auxiliary service facility (ASF) unless specified otherwise, at which mail is entered by the mailer.

Entry Point

Devices, such as pull quotes, sidebars, lists and graphs, used to draw the reader into a story.

Envelope

An enclosure made of paper or similar material used to hold other pieces for mailing.

Envelope Lining Paper

Tissue paper used to line the inside of matching stationery envleopes. Used for decorative purposes.

Environment

Prevailing conditions that reflect the combined influence of climate, soil, topography and biology (other plants and animals) in an area.

Environmental sourcing

The purchase of environmentally preferable products, along with efforts to support suppliers with sound environmental practices.

Environmental Standard for Recycled Printing & Writing Papers or Coated Papers

Federal Standard (Executive Order 12783) that establishes minimum content standards for printing and writing paper procured by federal agencies.

Paper is divided into two groups based on end use: copier paper, computer print out paper, carbonless paper are one group; writing and office paper, book paper, cover stock paper are a second group.

The minimum content for recycled material varies within each group.

Environmentally sound manufacturing

Manufacturing processes that are designed to minimize environmental impacts.

EOF

End of File

The completion of a set of data.

EP

Electronic Publishing

A configuration of hardware and software used for the production of documents.

Printing with a device that is computer driven and has the ability to change images from one copy to the next.

The term includes desktop publishing and high-end systems.

EP

Endpapers

The plain white, colored, decorated, or printed paper that is at the front and end of a book, one half of which is pasted down to the binding.

The endpapers are used to give a finished look to the binding.

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

The mission of the Environmental Protection Agency is to protect human health and the environment. Since 1970, EPA has been working for a cleaner, healthier environment for the American people.

EPA leads the nation’s environmental science, research, education and assessment efforts.

http://www.epa.gov

EPC

Educational Publishers Council

A division of the Publishers Association concerned with the UK schoolbook market.

EPF

Electronic Publishers’ Forum

A division of the Publishers Association.

Ephemera

Objects which, in general, are fragile and not made to last for a long time.

Examples include, but are not limited to, magazines, journals, paper toys, and publisher promotional items.

Epilogue

Text that appears at the end of a story which brings the reader up to date or offers parting comments, as opposed to a prologue, which appears at the beginning of a story and offers introductory comments.

EPOS

Electronic Point Of Sale

The bookshop till system used for sales data and stock control.

EProduction eCommerce eXchange

PCX

A standard established for the development activities of organizations building applications for supply-chain, e-commerce, marketplace, production, and related systems to enable information to be exchanged and flow effectively between participating partners.

EPS
  1. Encapsulated Postscript – A file format that can contain vector graphics or bitmap images.

  2. Electronic Publishing Systemor Electronic Printing Systems – AAny computer program that can perform typography and/or page layout for electronic documents. A desktop publishing system is an example of an EPS.

Epson Emulation

The industry standard control codes for dot matrix printers were developed by Epson and virtually all software packages and most dot matrix printers either follow or improve on these codes.

EQP

End Quantity Pricing

The price listed in the far right column of a product’s catalog listing. This best price, based on large quantities, is often granted to a distributor who is a large customer of a particular supplier.

Equilibrium Relative Humidity

ERH

Refers to the moisture content in paper which should be the same as the printing environment.

Equivalent Paper

Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost the same. . Also called comparable stock.

Equivalent Weight

The system that allows the comparison of papers having different basic sizes and basic weights. For example, 20# bond paper (which has a basic size of 17” x 22”) is equivalent to 51# offset (which has a basic size of 17” x 28”).

ERA

European Rotogravure Association

Headquartered in Munich, the association was founded in 1956 by European gravure print shops; manufacturers from the industry are associate members.

Erasability

A characteristic of paper that has been manufactured with firmly bound fibers which results in a hard surface that allows a clean erasure.

Erasable Ink

Ink that will rub off when an attempt is made to erase information in the area that it has been printed. It is generally used to print the background of a check or other documents that required some form of security.

The ink will also react in the same manner as solvent/chemical reactive inks do, giving you two security features in one.

Erasable Optical Disk

(Also called rewritable optical disk). Optical disk that can be rewritten a large number of times at the user’s workstation.

ERH

Equilibrium Relative Humidity

This refers to the moisture content in paper which should be the same as the printing environment.

Errata

A list of errors and misprints in the text of a book.

The list might be printed on a bound page in the book or on a separate piece of paper that is pasted or laid in the book.

Errata Slip

See Errata.

Erratum

The correction of errors in a book, normally inserted as a slip of paper (an erratum slip) into the finished book.

Error 404

This error message means Page Not Found (on a server).

Error Control

Any system that is used for the detection of errors. Some systems automatically correct the errors, by operations on the received data or by retransmission from the source.

ESC

Escape.

A key on the keyboard whose function may differ from one program to the next or with the type of terminal being used.

On a PC, it generally serves to release control of a function or to exit a

Esparto Paper

A paper produced from esparto pulp, usually in a mixture with a relatively small amount of chemical wood pulp.

Esparto is generally used in the manufacture of better grades of printing papers (those containing 90 to 95% esparto, the balance being chemical wood).

Ester

A group of solvents made by reacting an acid with an alcohol, e.g., ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, “acetate” solvents.

Esthetic program

Feature of a layout program that ensures that the text flows with visual appeal, in accordance with typographic rules.

The features of such a program include the individual adjustment of the spaces between certain letter combinations (known as “kerning”), and corrections to the positions of line starts (for example a line beginning with “A” must be moved slightly outwards).

Estimate

A price that gives the customer the cost to produce a product according to the specifications that have been supplied.

Estimator

One who computes or approximates evaluation of cost of work to be done on which quotation may be based.

ETA

Estimated Time of Arrival.

Etch

Carving done on plates and film using chemicals to create an image. This also refers to an acid solution which is used to desensitize non-printing areas of a plate so they will not attract ink.

Etching

Using a process in which an image is first covered with a protective coating that resists acid, then exposed, leaving bare metal and protected metal. The acid attacks only the exposed metal, leaving the image etched onto the surface.

Ethernet

A network technology used in local area networks (LAN) and wide area networks (WAN). Ethernet is a networking cabling system that transmits data at high speeds. Standard Ethernet (10 Base-T) transmits at 10 Mbps. Fast Ethernet (100 Base-T) transmits at 100 Mbps and requires Fiber Optics transmission..

ETSI

European Telecommunications Standards Institute

An independent, non-profit, standardization organization of the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection.

ETSI has been successful in standardizing the GSM cell phone system and the TETRA professional mobile radio system.

Significant ETSI standardisation bodies are 3GPP (for UMTS networks) or TISPAN (for fixed networks and Internet convergence).

ETSI was created by CEPT in 1988 and is officially recognized by the European Commission and the EFTA secretariat.

Based in Sophia Antipolis (France), ETSI is officially responsible for standardization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Europe.

These technologies include telecommunications, broadcasting and related areas such as intelligent transportation and medical electronics.

ETSI has 699 members from 55 countries inside and outside Europe, including manufacturers, network operators, administrations, service providers, research bodies and users — in fact, all the key players in the ICT arena.

Euclidean Dot Shapes

Round, elliptical, square, or linear halftone dots that invert with their cell after 50% intensity. This strategy helps reduce dot gain problems sometimes experienced with elliptical, square, and linear dots.

EUPRIMA

European Print Management System Association

An association for suppliers of management information systems established in 2000, the primary task of which is to promote the electronic exchange of data between manufacturers, customers and suppliers in the print industry using the Job Definition Format (JDF). EUPRIMA works closely with CIP4 in advancing development work.

Euro scale

A color scale for the CMYK four-color model standardized in Europe in DIN 16 539 for offset printing and DIN 16 538 for letterpress printing. This defines the printing colors yellow, magenta, cyan and black according to hue, saturation and print sequence and enables them to controlled under standard conditions.

European Article Numbering System

EAN

The standard bar code for retail food products that is used internationally.

European Telecommunications Standards Institute

ETSI

An independent, non-profit, standardization organization of the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection.

ETSI has been successful in standardizing the GSM cell phone system and the TETRA professional mobile radio system.

Significant ETSI standardisation bodies are 3GPP (for UMTS networks) or TISPAN (for fixed networks and Internet convergence).

ETSI was created by CEPT in 1988 and is officially recognized by the European Commission and the EFTA secretariat.

Based in Sophia Antipolis (France), ETSI is officially responsible for standardization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Europe.

These technologies include telecommunications, broadcasting and related areas such as intelligent transportation and medical electronics.

ETSI has 699 members from 55 countries inside and outside Europe, including manufacturers, network operators, administrations, service providers, research bodies and users — in fact, all the key players in the ICT arena.

EV

Exposure Value

A numeric value used to denote the combinations of shutter speed and aperture setting in a digital camera available for the same exposure effect when the lighting of the scene remains constant.

Even Folio

The even numbered page, the left hand or versso page.

Even Parity

A method for the verification of data in which each character must have an even number of ’’on’’ (1) bits.

Even Smalls

The use of smaller sized capitals at the beginning of a sentence without the use of larger sized caps.

Every Day

24 hours a day, 7 days a week,

Ex-Lib

Ex-Library

Identifies a book that was once the property of an institutional or corporate library.

Usually there are noticeable marks and stamps on the binding and/or in the text.

It may also have library card pockets, and it often shows considerable wear and/or rebinding.

For collectors, it is worth considerably less monetarily than a book that has not been owned and marked-up by an institutional library.

Ex-Library

Identifies a book that was once the property of an institutional or corporate library.

Usually there are noticeable marks and stamps on the binding and/or in the text.

It may also have library card pockets, and it often shows considerable wear and/or rebinding.

For collectors, it is worth considerably less monetarily than a book that has not been owned and marked-up by an institutional library.

Ex-Libris

A bookplate printed with the owner’s name or initials.

Latin for “From the library of…”

Example

A particular copy of an edition.

Exception Dictionary

In word processing or desktop publishing this is a store of pre-hyphenated words that do not conform to the usual rules contained in the hyphenation and justification program (H & J). Some programs, PageMaker for example, only use an exception dictionary.

Excerpt

A portion taken from a larger work, such as when portions of a book appear as a magazine article.

Exchange Copy

Complimentary courtesy copy sent by two publishers to each other.

Excitation Purity

Lightness or darkness of the colour (defined with dominant wavelength.

Exclusive

Sole distribution or publishing rights given to or sold to only one distributor or publisher in a particular geographic area. Also a news or feature article published by a publication before any of its competitors.

Exclusive Readers

Readers who read only one magazine within a predefined category.

Executive Editor

Oversees daily copy quality and deadline compliance.

Existing Light

Available light. Strictly speaking, existing light covers all natural lighting from moonlight to sunshine. For photographic purposes, existing light is the light that is already on the scene or project and includes room lamps, fluorescent lamps, spotlights, neon signs, candles, daylight through windows, outdoor scenes at twilight or in moonlight, and scenes artificially illuminated after dark.

Expanded Type

A typeface with a slightly wider body giving a flatter appearance.

Expansion Card

In order to increase the capabilities of the computer, a circuit board or expansion board can be inserted.

Expansion Slots

Slots or spaces which accommodate additional expansion cards to increase the functionality of the computer.

Expansivity

The dimensionable change in paper when subjected to a change in relative humidity.

Expert Reading

A review of a manuscript by an expert in the field, also called a technical edit.

Export

Shipment of goods to a foreign country.

Exposure

The quantity and duration of light acting on the emulsions of a photographic material.

Exposure Correction

To override automatic exposure controls, some digital cameras have an exposure correction feature (+/- EV compensation) which can be used to manually compensate for extreme brightness or low levels of light.

Exposure Latitude

The range of camera exposures from underexposure to overexposure that will produce acceptable pictures from a specific film.

Exposure Meter

An instrument with a light-sensitive cell that measures the light reflected from or falling on a subject, used as an aid for selecting the exposure setting. The same as a light meter.

Express

A printer control language developed by OASYS.

Extended Content Labels

ECL

The ECL label is used to add content to a label. The limited space on a standard label makes it difficult to display all of the content that is required on some labels. Because reducing the type size affects the readability, some companies have started to use an extended content label (ECL) to satisfy their content needs.

Some ECL labels are printed on the back side of the label and some have extra folded pieces attached that are unfolded to reveal the additional content.

Extended Managed Mail Tray

EMM

2-foot letter trays that measure 21 3/4 inches long by 11 1/2 inches wide (inside bottom dimensions) by 61/8 inches high. Must be used for letter-size mail that does not fit in regular MM trays.

Extended Type

Type that has been expanded so that its width is wider than it normally is for that type.

Extender

A white pigment added to a colored pigment to reduce its intensity and improve its working qualities.

Extensible Business Reporting Language

An XML-based language most commonly used for automating the process of collaborative Internet tasks such as preparation, analysis and sharing of financial documents.

Extensible Forms Definition Language

An XML based language used to describe the appearance of forms including lines, boxes, text and other related components in order to define the data fields and layout for presentation and processing on the Web.

Extensible HyperText Markup Language

XHTML

The reformulation of HTML 4 with XML. XML is a structured set of rules used to define data to be shared on the Web. It is extensible in that anyone can make up a particular set of markups for any purpose and as long as everyone uses the same markups, it will be adapted. HTML has a fixed set of elements that cannot be varied.

With XHTML, new elements could be developed and added to the existing ones. Elements from XML and HTML 4 could be combined, creating new ways to embed content and programming into the Web page. It provides the means for Web authors to enter structured data while maintaining operability with users who support HTML 4. XHTML looks a lot like HTML, so if you are familiar with HTML, it will be easy to learn.

Extensible Markup Language

An open standard markup language used for Internet applications that is basically a metalanguage used for describing other languages.

While HTML language is limited in its ability to tag and define content within the file, XML is extensible and therefore is not limited in the number of tags that can be applied to descibe the content and how it is to be transferred, displayed or utilized.

This enables data and many of the processes using the data to be automated to a higher level of functionality for real-time data exchange between organizations.

XML is superficially similar to HTML, the primary difference being that the symbols (tags) used in XML can be selected with a larger degree of freedom, while they are fixed in HTML.

This feature allows special forms of XML to be generated for virtually any type of application.

XML is essentially a slimmed-down form of the SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) document description language defined in ISO 8879 and was created for transmitting richly structured documents via the World Wide Web.

The International World Wide Web Consortium is responsible for the standardization of XML.

Extent

The number of pages in a book.

External drum exposure

Refers to a writing head that is placed outside the drum. The film or printing plate is clamped onto the outside of the drum and fixed via a vacuum. When the drum rotates, the writing head traverses the material to be imaged line for line.

External Flash

A flash attachment used for mounting on the semi-professional or professional level digital cameras. The flash may be attached to the camera on a “hot shoe” or a camera socket, or be independent of the camera and activated with a flash cable synchronized to the shooting of the image.

External Mail Gateway

A mail service option that enables separate internal users to exchange electronic mail.

External Mode

A setting on a digital camera that allows for the use of only the external flash attachment rather than the built-in flash

Extra High Grade

A truly high grade tape will demonstrate its differences mostly in the quality of the image recorded. Extra high grade tape coatings are generally superior in noise immunity and lower in dropouts.

This means that you get a better recording, and you’ll get a better second and third generation copy. Several manufacturers have indicated on their packaging that they have done things to also provide greater longevity, but this is a claim that would be difficult to prove or disprove.

For especially valuable recordings, use a high grade tape; but remember that there is no standardization and no requirements that prevent anyone from naming a product “extra high grade.” Buy a tape with a brand you trust.

Extra Illustrated

A copy of a book into which additional illustrations have been bound.

Extra Permanent Adhesive

An adhesive used when a general purpose permanent is not strong enough. It has more initial tack and superior adhesion strength. Also called aggressive permanent.

Eyemark

A small rectangular printing area usually located near the edge of a web or design, to activate an automatic electronic position regulator for controlling register or the printed design with subsequent equipment or operations.


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