Glossary of Printing Terms:R

Radio Button

Similar to a checkbox on a form except that normally, if there are several radio buttons to an item, you can only select one radio button.

If you change your selection, it will normally cancel out the previous selected radio button.

Radio Frequency Identification

RFID

Labels used to identify objects that work with radio signals for data transmission in the production, transportation and storage sectors.

Instead of barcodes and optical scanning devices, RFID systems use transponders as markers on the objects to be monitored.

These units receive radio signals from the relevant interrogation devices and transmit their information back.

Some of the key advantages of this technology include the fact that larger volumes of data can be stored in the transponders, the link between the transponder and the interrogation device is reliable without a direct line of sight, the data is interrogated more quickly and the data can be changed.

RAE

Reply Address Envelope

A reply envelope that has address preprinted but postage is not prepaid.

Rag

Fiber from cotton material.

Rag Book

A children’s book printed on and bound with cloth fabric.

Rag Paper

Paper that contains cotton rag fibers.

Paper with a rag content of at least 10 percent primarily used for banknotes and documents.

Generally used for high quality stationery.

Ragged

Unjustified type; lines of type that have an uneven edge either at the right or left edge.

Railroad Board

A thick heavy board, manufactured in colors. Generally 4 ply or 6 ply and available coated or uncoated.

Rainbow Fountain

A printing technique where different ink colors are put next to each other in the same ink fountain.

The oscillating ink rollers cause the colors to combined where they touch and this produces a rainbow effect.

Raised Band

The visibly raised areas on a book spine where the cords, which attach the cover boards, are passed through.

May also refer to fake raised bands on decorative bindings.

Also known as Raised Cord.

Raised Cord

The visibly raised areas on a book spine where the cords, which attach the cover boards, are passed through.

May also refer to fake raised bands on decorative bindings.

Also known as Raised Band.

RAL Colors

Standard colors based on a series of color collections for industry published by the Deutsches Institut für Gütesicherung und Kennzeichnung, Sankt Augustin.

There are over 2,000 RAL colors, and the RAL Design System, a color system which takes in the entire color space, contains 1688 color tones.

All RAL colors in the RAL Design System and the RAL 840-HR classical color collection are also defined digitally.

They can be used with all standard graphic arts programs and can be used with more than 20 output variants, that is with different screens and printers.

RAM

Random-Access Memory

The computer’’s memory where files currently being used are stored, managed and have functions performed on them.

This memory is used to execute programs and store data.

This memory loses its data when the power is turned off on the computer.

RAMDAC

Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter

A direct access storage or memory used to convert digitally encoded data into analog signals performed by specific chips.

Random Watermark

A watermark that appears in no particular order, repetitively throughout the paper.

Random-Access Memory

RAM

The computer’’s memory where files currently being used are stored, managed and have functions performed on them.

This memory is used to execute programs and store data. This memory loses its data when the power is turned off on the computer.

Rangefinder

A device included on many cameras as an aid in focusing.

Rapidograph

A special type of pen used as a technical drawing pen.

RARP

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

Used by a host to find its IP address.

The host sends out its physical address and a RARP server will translate its IP address back to the host.

Raster

Converting mathematical and digital information into a series of dots.

It is converted to digital data that can be used for output on a device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.

Raster Image

Also called bitmap image, is a reproduced graphic (text or image) which is displayed on a video monitor as pixels or on paper as an array of dots.

It is identified in terms of resolution, such as dots per inch or pixels per inch. Raster images are produced from scanners, digital cameras or software editing programs.

Raster Image File Format

RIFF

An expanded version of the TIFF file format used for graphics, which is used by many scanners.

Raster Image Processor

RIP

A processor that prepares data from the prepress stage for the production of printing plates.

A hardware device or program that calculates the printing instructions for the bitmapped image of text and graphics and then converts the instructions into dot patterns that can be understood by the output device.

Its most important function is to create screens for printing images and other graphic elements.

As a rule, an RIP is a separate computer, but it can also come in the form of software.

Rasterization

The process of converting a vector image or other non-bitmap image into a bitmap image.

Rasterizer

A software program that converts font data for output as raster graphics, that is, into bitmaps.

This step must be performed before characters can be displayed on the monitor or printed as a hardcopy.

Unlike vector graphics, a raster graphic consists of pixels arranged in a fixed grid.

Raw Text

Straight text, before any encoding or formatting has been done to it.

Raw text is a type of text design in which the lines are not made to be of uniform length by correspondingly enlarging the spaces between words.

Deliberately varying line lengths as a creative technique is referred to as ragged setting.

RBCS

Remote Bar Coding System

The system assists in reading addresses that can’’t be read by the OCR, such as ones that are handwritten. An image of the address is sent to a computer where an operator adds missing information and corrects errors.

The image is then sent back to the OCR to be processed and bar coded.

RC Paper

Resin-coated photosensitive paper used for output on a imagesetter or typesetter.

RDS

Report Distribution System

A software that is flexible in handling a variety of formats to create and distribute customized reports.

RDS identifies, packages, bundles, and distributes partial or complete reports to multiple end users so that the reports can be printed or viewed.

Re-Issue

A term encompassing all types of a reprinting of a work; it can be a later printing of a book, which is substantially unchanged, or an entirely new edition, such as a cloth edition re-issued as a paperback edition.

Re-Sized

Usually means that all of the pages in a book have been “washed” and sizing material, such as gelatin or glue, has been re-applied.

The washing may have been done to remove stains, writing, or acid from the pages.

Sizing provides a protective finish and makes flimsy paper stiff.

Read Area

The scan area of a bar code

Read-Only Memory

ROM

The part of the computer’’s memory where data is permanently stored and cannot be altered.

Read/Write Head

A mechanism that reads data from or writes data to a magnetic disk, such as a disk drive or a magnetic tape drive.

Readability

The ease in which text can be read. Readability is affected by many factors. Some of these factors are typeface, point size, leading, ink color, measure, as well as others.

Reader Spreads

Mechanicals that are set up the way the reader would read them.

An eight page brochure would have pages 2 and 3 on one and pages 4 and 5 on another.

This differs from printer spreads that would have pages 2 and 7 on one and pages 3 and 6 on another.

Reading Copy

Refers to the condition of the book; the text is readable and complete, but the binding is in poor condition and the text block should probably be rebound.

Ream

A unit of measurement for sheets of paper.

Though formerly defined as a 480 sheets, in the U.S. the term now refers to 500 sheets or, in the case of a so-called printer’s ream, 516 sheets, regardless of the paper’’s size or weight.

Ream Weight

The weight of 500 sheets of paper.

Ream Wrapped

500 sheets of paper that has been wrapped in individual packages.

Rebacked

The book has been given a new spine and the hinges have been fixed.

This process mends a book when the hinges are weak and the spine is worn and cracked.

See also Rebound and Recased.

Rebound

The original binding of the book has been removed and a new binding has been attached and re-sewn.

See also Rebacked and Recased.

Recased

The text block of the book has been put into a new binding.

The process usually requires new endpapers and gluing but not re-sewing of the binding.

See also Rebacked and Rebound.

Recipient

A person or computer who receives a message.

Reciprocity

Most films are designed to be exposed within a certain range of exposure times-usually between 1/15 second to 1/1000 second.

When exposure times fall outside of this range-becoming either significantly longer or shorter-a film’s characteristics may change.

Loss of effective film speed, contrast changes, and (with color films) color shifts are the three common results.

These changes are called reciprocity effect.

Record

A group of fields, of related data or words, that is treated as a single unit.

Record Type

A method used to determine how information will be written to tape, which is based on the number of bytes per record.

Recto
  1. The right hand page or odd-numbered page of a book.

  2. The front of the leaf; the page that lies to the right in an open book.

Rectos are the odd-numbered pages.

Also known as Recto Page.

Recto Page

The front of the leaf; the page that lies to the right in an open book.

Rectos are the odd-numbered pages.

Also known as Recto.

Recyclable

Material that is suitable for recycling.

Recycle Rate

The time required to provide image processing and storage.

Recycled Paper

Paper produced from 100 percent used paper.

Used paper fibers (also known as secondary fibers) can be used three to five times in this manner.

If the recycled paper needs to be pure white, de-inking chemicals have to be used to remove the inks from the used paper, and the fibers also have to undergo a bleaching process.

Red-Eye Reduction Mode

A setting on a digital camera’’s flash which provides a short burst of light to close the iris of the eye and then a full burst of light from the flash.

This will reduce or eliminate the red dot (i.e., red eye) that appears in the image of the eyes of humans or animals.

Redigitization

Process by which print originals in the form of film material are converted back into digital data using scanners and software.

The data can be stored in common file formats and then undergo further processing with the appropriate applications, thus allowing a print shop or prepress company to use the scanned films in a digital workflow.

Reduced Instruction Set Computer

RISC

A computer that recognizes only a limited number of instructions.

Since the instructions are simple the comuter can run much faster.

Redundancy Check

Data is verified electronically to be sure that it is in the same form in which it was sent.

Reel Spool

The take-up roll around which the paper web is wound after reaching the end of its journey through the paper machine.

Refining

Mechanical treatment of pulp fibres to develop their paper technical properties, such as ability to bond each other

Reflectance

The amount of light reflected or transmitted from the paper’’s surface as seen by the human eye.

Reflection Density Range

A measure of the light and dark densities of an original image, which serves as a means of explaining the limitations of reproducing a halftone image from the original.

The range may be stated as 2.00 which is measured as the difference between the highlight density value (the light areas) and the shadow density value (the dark areas) in a high quality photograph.

Reflective Copy

Artwork, photographs or paintings that reflect light off their surface as opposed to transparent copy.

Reflective Ink

Inks that can be read by the human eye but cannot be read by a scanner.

Reflector

Any device used to reflect light onto a subject.

Refresh Rate
  1. The amount of time it takes for the screen to rewrite the image.

  2. In a digital camera, beginning with the activation of the shutter button, the refresh rate is the length of time required to process and create the digital image.

Register
  1. Aligning the images of each color so that they are printed in the proper location on the paper.

  2. Aligning one part of a form with the next so that all parts are aligned. All parts must be in register so that when the form is imprinted or filled out, the impression will transfer to the proper location on each part.

Register Bond

Lightweight bond paper manufactured for the printing of business forms, also referred to as forms bond.

Register Forms

Forms manufactured specifically to be used in register machines.

They are similar to a continuous forms except the do not have the margin stubs on the left and right sides.

The forms have two holes punched on them at the top or bottom, which are used to feed them through the register machine.

Register Marks

The printed marks used to align color separations for printing so that each color registers with each other.

Registered Emboss

A process that places the embossed image in alignment with another element created with ink, foil, punching, or with a second embossed image.

Registration Marks

Cross-haired lines that help visually ensure that a set of films or printing plates are in register, to produce a sharp registered result.

Many modern printing presses have sensors which can automatically detect registration marks and ensure registration.

Reinforced Dust Jacket

A dust jacket that has been strengthened with tape by the previous owner.

Relative Record Data Set

RRDS

Data set whose records are identified by their RRN (Relative Record Number).

Record one in the data set is RRN1, record two is RRN2 and so on.

Record are accessed according to their relative position in the file.

Release Coat

A coating which is usually a silicone material which is applied to the liner.

This coating allows the liner to separate from the facestock.

The type of release coating will vary according to how difficult it must be for the facestock to release from the liner.

Release Liner

The backer material or carrier sheet of a pressure sensitive material.

It protects the adhesive until time of use.

Generally has a release coating applied to allow the adhesive to release easily.

Relief

All printing processes in which the non-printing areas of the block or plate are carved, engraved, or etched away.

Inks are applied onto the protected surface and transferred onto the paper.

The reverse process is known as intaglio printing.

Relief Printing

A printing method where the plate used to print with has two levels to it.

The higher level is the image area that carries the ink.

Flexography and letterpress are relief printing methods.

Remainder

Books that are discounted from the publisher because of over-printing or lack of sales, or because the book has been revised.

They are often sold to booksellers in bulk and usually have remainder marks on the outside edge or binding of the book.

Remainder Mark

A publisher’s written mark on a book indicating it is a remainder.

It is usually done with a permanent pen, stamp, or spray paint on the outside edge or on the binding of the book.

Remote Access

Interacting with a distant computer by means of dial-up, modem, etc., using a standard telephone line.

Remote Bar Coding System

RBCS

The system assists in reading addresses that can’’t be read by the OCR, such as ones that are handwritten. An image of the address is sent to a computer where an operator adds missing information and corrects errors.

The image is then sent back to the OCR to be processed and bar coded.

Remote Execution Protocol

REXEC

A protocol that permits the execution of a commands on a foreign host.

The results of the command execution are received by the local host.

Remote Host

Any host on the network, excluding the workstation you are working on.

Remote Job Entry

RJE

An operation that permits the submission, of a job being processed, from a remote point and then allows it to be delivered back to that point when it is completed.

Remote Procedure Call

RPC

A facility, which includes a library of procedures and external data representation, that a client uses to request that a procedure call from a server be executed.

Remote Proofing

Digitally transmitting a file of a proof to an outside location so that the proof can be output at that location for approval.

Removability

A term which is used to describe the force that is necessary to remove a label from a surface without causing damage.

Removable Adhesive

A removable label can be removed from the substrate without pieces remaining on the surface. Depending on its level of tack, a removable label can damage the surface of some materials, such as wood and suede.

After a period of time or exposure to weather, the removable label will become permanent.

Render

The process of adding realism to a graphics image by adding three-dimensional features, such as shading and color variation and shadows.

Rendering

The accurate representation of three-dimensional models by a computer, whereby the object is given the most realistic surface possible, illuminated by an artificial light source and embedded in an equally three-dimensional environment with light, shadows, reflections, etc.

Renewal

A direct mail package the is requesting membership renewal.

Repeat Length
  1. On a web press, it is the circumference of the impression cylinder.

  2. On continuous forms or roll products, it is the measurement from a point on one product to the same point on the next product. For example, on a roll of labels it would be the measurement from the top of one label to the top of the next label.

Reply Address Envelope

RAE

A reply envelope that has address preprinted but postage is not prepaid.

Reply Card Paper

Paper that has been manufactured to the specific caliper that is required by the United States Postal Service.

Report Distribution System

RDS

A software that is flexible in handling a variety of formats to create and distribute customized reports.

RDS identifies, packages, bundles, and distributes partial or complete reports to multiple end users so that the reports can be printed or viewed.

Repositionable Adhesive

An adhesive that allows a label to be reapplied in another area and is not limited to the number of times it can be repositioned.

Repositionable adhesive does not gain permanency over time.

Ultra-Removable

Reprint
  1. A rerun of a job that has already been printed.

  2. A portion of a publication that has been produced and is then used somewhere else, such as reprinting an article that was previously printed in a magazine.

Reproduction Ratio

Ratio of the size of the reproduction to the original size of the object.

Reproduction Scale

Ratio of the size of the reproduction to the original size of the object.

Request for Comments

RFC

The set of on-line documents describing the Internet’’s protocols, standards, and other relevant items.

RFCs are available by anonymous FTP from a variety of locations, including InterNIC’’s own ds.internic.net.

They may also be requested by e-mail (mailserv@ds.internic.com) or by phone (800-444-4345).

Resident

A program or file that is held permanently within memory.

Examples of resident programs would be those used for calculators and calendars which need to be available for immediate access.

Another resident example would a font that is held in a printers memory, allowing it to be available at all times.

Resiliency

The ability of paper to regain its original structure after being subjected to a printing impression.

Resolution

In an optical context, a measure of the ability of input and output devices or of photographic films to visualize two adjacent dots independent of one another./r/n/r/nThe resolution depends on the physical properties of the visualizing or recording device or material and is usually limited by the wavelength of the light source./r/n/r/nResolution is usually given in dots per inch (dpi) or in lines per millimeter./r/n/r/nDPI = “dots per inch” which technically refers to printed resolution, although it has become the industry standard and is often confused with PPI (pixels per inch)./r/n/r/nPPI is a relative measurement and before setting it you need to know the physical size of your document. Digital images are composed of pixels, the more you have of them per inch, the finer the detail./r/n/r/nPrinting standards have determined that a minimum resolution of 300ppi _ at actual size _ is needed for optimal image clarity./r/n/r/nIn cases of images with logos or text 400ppi is recommended (although for these types of images, “vector artwork” is highly recommended)

Resolution

The measurement of output quality expressed in pixels (dots) per inch on a computer monitor or dots per inch on printed media.

For example, a monitor displaying a resolution of 800 by 600 refers to a screen capable of displaying 800 pixels in each of 600 lines, which translates into a total of 480,000 pixels displayed on the screen.

When referring to printed media, a 300 dpi (dots per inch) printer for example, is capable of outputting 300 dots in a one-inch line, which means that it has the ability of printing 90,000 distinct dots per square inch (300 × 300).

Response Form

The response device used in a direct mail program to allow recipients to respond to the offer, such as a reply card, order form or reply form.

Response Rate

The rate at which a direct mail program has been responded to, generally stated in percentage.

Response Time

The amount of time it takes a system to respond to a command for stored data to be transferred or a processing cycle to be completed.

Restore

Using the backup copy of a program or data in order to recover data that was lost or damaged on the original copy.

Reticulation

Cracking or distorting of the emulsion during processing, usually caused by wide temperature or chemical-activity differences between the solutions.

Retouching
  1. The method of altering artwork or color separations to correct problems or enhance the quality of the image.

  2. Altering a print or negative after development by use of dyes or pencils to alter tones of highlights, shadows, and other details, or to remove blemishes.

Return On Investment

ROI

The actual or anticipated profits derived from an investment after all costs are deducted.

ROI is typically calculated as a percentage of the total cost to serve as a benchmark for the amount of money that is made on the total of invested dollars.

Reverse

To produce an image that is white on a solid background. When printing, the reverse area will be the color of the stock being printed on.

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

RARP

Used by a host to find its IP address.

The host sends out its physical address and a RARP server will translate its IP address back to the host.

Reverse Folio

Folio text is set on the right side on verso pages (left pages) and on the left on recto pages (right pages).

Reverse Printing

When clear film labels are printed on the back side, referred to as subsurface printing, with a reverse image.

When the label is applied to the product, the printed image will be between the container and the label stock which protects it from scuffing.

After the label is applied, the reverse printed image will be right reading.

Reverse Sequence

When a carbonless set is assembled in the opposite order for what it should be for proper usage.

Reverse Type

The background is printed instead of the type.

The type will be the color of the stock being printed on.

Review Copy

A copy of a book sent out for review by the publisher to the press, booksellers, and others in order to attract attention to the publication.

Frequently review copies will have slips of paper inserted into the book, or have it written on the cover, announcing it as a review copy.

Textbook review copies are also known as “desk copies” or “instructor copies” and are given to instructors to review for consideration for adoption of the regular edition.

See also Advance Reading Copy.

Revise

When changes are made to proofs and submitted for corrections to be made.

Rewind

To wind a web of paper back onto a core or cylinder, generally at the delivery end of the press.

REXEC

Remote Execution Protocol

A protocol that permits the execution of a commands on a foreign host.

The results of the command execution are received by the local host.

RF Output

The playback output level of the recorded FM signal.

Lower RF output levels can result in increased noise levels in the playback signal.

RFC

Request for Comments

The set of on-line documents describing the Internet’’s protocols, standards, and other relevant items.

RFCs are available by anonymous FTP from a variety of locations, including InterNIC’’s own ds.internic.net.

They may also be requested by e-mail (mailserv@ds.internic.com) or by phone (800-444-4345).

RFID

Radio Frequency Identification

Labels used to identify objects that work with radio signals for data transmission in the production, transportation and storage sectors.

Instead of barcodes and optical scanning devices, RFID systems use transponders as markers on the objects to be monitored.

These units receive radio signals from the relevant interrogation devices and transmit their information back.

Some of the key advantages of this technology include the fact that larger volumes of data can be stored in the transponders, the link between the transponder and the interrogation device is reliable without a direct line of sight, the data is interrogated more quickly and the data can be changed.

RFM

Recency/Frequency/Monetary

A formula used with most databases that provides the mailer with information on the recency and frequency of purchases and the dollar amount spent by the people on that mailing list.

RGB

The standard additive color model for the primary colors red, green and blue, is used for self-illuminating output devices such as monitors, but also for electronic recording equipment such as scanners and video cameras.

Rich Text Format

RTF

Microsoft developed this as a standard to specify formatting of documents.

These are actually ASCII files that have special commands to indicate fonts, margins and other formatting.

RIFF

Raster Image File Format

An expanded version of the TIFF file format used for graphics, which is used by many scanners.

Right Angle Fold

A folding sequence in which each fold is at a right angle to the fold before it.

Right Reading

The direction of text on a sheet which reads from left to right.

Ring Flash

A circular flash attachment fitting over the lens of a digital camera in order to enable macro or close-up images to be exposed properly with increased lighting from the flash.

Ring-Bound

The binding of individual sheets of paper in an exchangeable form, for pages to be added, removed, or relocated in the book.

Loose-leaf bindings are used wherever records of repeatedly changing information must be kept. Instruction manuals, catalogs, and accounting forms are often loose-leaf bound.

RIP

Raster Image Processor

A processor that prepares data from the prepress stage for the production of printing plates.

A hardware device or program that calculates the printing instructions for the bitmapped image of text and graphics and then converts the instructions into dot patterns that can be understood by the output device.

Its most important function is to create screens for printing images and other graphic elements.

As a rule, an RIP is a separate computer, but it can also come in the form of software.

RISC

Reduced Instruction Set Computer

A computer that recognizes only a limited number of instructions.

Since the instructions are simple the comuter can run much faster.

River

White space in a distracting pattern that is formed due to irregular word spacing running through a text area.

RJE

Remote Job Entry

An operation that permits a processing job to be submitted from a remote point and then have the results delivered back to that point when completed.

Roan

A soft, flexible, sheepskin binding.

This durable, yet cheap, leather material came in to use around 1790 as a replacement for the more expensive morocco leather, and is not known for its elegance.

ROI

Return On Investment

The actual or anticipated profits derived from an investment after all costs are deducted.

ROI is typically calculated as a percentage of the total cost to serve as a benchmark for the amount of money that is made on the total of invested dollars.

Roll

A web of paper wrapped around a core or shaft.

Roll Feeder

An infeed device used to feed paper rolls into a printer, which is generally a high speed, non-impact printer.

Roll feeders can handle paper rolls up to 60 inches in diameter.

The advantage of using the roll feeds and roll paper is the time saved in loading paper into the printer.

The roll stock last several hours compared to a carton of fan-folded paper only lasting for minutes before it needs to have another carton loaded.

Roll Fold

A type of fold where the piece is folded inward at one end and then folded inward again one or more times. It is as if you are rolling the piece up.

Roll Labels

Labels on a continuous roll.

Roll to Fold

A printing process where a roll of paper is fed into the press, printed and then fanfolded into a stack of continuouse forms at the delivery end of the press.

Roll to Sheet

A printing process where a roll of paper is fed into the press, printed and then cut off in sheets at the delivery end of the press.

Rollout

The actual mailing of a direct mail program to all of its prospects opposed to the test run where only a select portion of the prospects receive the mailing.

Rollover

A graphic or image that changes when the cursor is moved over it.

ROM

Read-Only Memory

The part of the computer’’s memory where data is permanently stored and cannot be altered.

Roman

Pertaining to an upright type style (as opposed to italic) which has serifs and is commonly used in books and periodicals.

Roman Face

The term used for fonts whose letters have small end-strokes (serifs) at the ends.

The basic form of Roman face stems directly from the antique Capitalis style of the Romans.

The upper-case letters are borrowed from the Roman script, while the lower-case letters come from the Caroline minuscule. Varying weights are another common feature of Roman faces.

They are especially easy to read in running texts, and include Times, Bodoni and Garamond.

Root

The top-most object in a hierarchy of objects; the object that has no other object above it.

Root Nameserver

A root nameserver is a DNS server that answers requests for the root namespace domain, and redirects requests for a particular top-level domain to that TLD’s nameservers.

Although any local implementation of DNS can implement its own private root nameservers, the term “root nameserver” is generally used to describe the thirteen well-known root nameservers that implement the root namespace domain for the Internet’s official global implementation of the Domain Name System.

All domain names on the Internet can be regarded as ending in a full stop character e.g. “en.wikipedia.org.”.

This final dot is generally implied rather than explicit, as modern DNS software does not actually require that the final dot be included when attempting to translate a domain name to an IP address.

The empty string after the final dot is called the root domain, and all other domains (i.e. .com, .org, .net, etc.) are contained within the root domain.

When a computer on the Internet wants to resolve a domain name, it works from right to left, asking each nameserver in turn about the element to its left.

The root nameservers (which have responsibility for the . domain) know about which servers are responsible for the top-level domains.

Each top-level domain (such as .org) has its own set of servers, which in turn delegate to the nameservers responsible for individual domain names (such as wikipedia.org), which in turn answer queries for IP addresses of subdomains or hosts (such as www).

Rosette

When the individual dots of four-color halftones are printed at the proper angles and in register, they form a flower like pattern.

A good rosette structure is critical for quality printing.

Rotary Press

A web or roll fed printing press which uses a printing plate that is mounted on a cylinder.

Rotation

The turning or positioning of text or an image at different degrees or orientation on a page.

Rotogravure

The utilization of the gravure printing process, which uses a metal printing cylinder that the iimage has bee etched into, on a rotary web press.

Rough

A preliminary version of a project, used to review, discuss or approve an initial idea, usually done before any composition is started.

Round Cornering

Using a machine to die cut the corners of forms, cards and books to create a rounded corner.

Route

The path from the source host to the destination host that network traffic travels.

Router

A computer or software package, that handles the transfer of information between two or more networks. It looks at the address where the information is being sent and decides what route the information should be sent.

Royalty

The payment made on sales.

Typically a percentage of the recommended retail price in the home market and of the monies received from export sales.

These payments are frequently set off against an advance and accounted for at six monthly intervals.

RPC

Remote Procedure Call

A facility, which includes a library of procedures and external data representation, that a client uses to request that a procedure call from a server be executed.

RRDS

Relative Record Data Set

Data set whose records are identified by their RRN (Relative Record Number).

Record one in the data set is RRN1, record two is RRN2 and so on.

Record are accessed according to their relative position in the file.

RRED

Right Reading Emulsion Down

RREU

Right Reading Emulsion Up

RRN

Relative Record Number

RSA

A public key encryption type.

RTF

Rich Text Format

Microsoft developed this as a standard to specify formatting of documents.

These are actually ASCII files that have special commands to indicate fonts, margins and other formatting.

Rub-Off

The phenomenon by which pressure on stacked sheets causes ink on one surface to be smeared on to the next.

This “carbon-copy effect” can occur due to the pressure of the clamp in trimming machines.

Rubbed

Refers to condition; the spine or cover has visible scuffmarks and may be worn in places.

Rubber Blanket

The blanket wrapped around the cylinder that is essential to the offset printing process. It transfers the printed image from the forme onto the paper.

The term “offset” is derived from the process by which color is displaced onto the rubber blanket.

Printing over a blanket provides an even print surface which makes it possible to work with coarse and granular papers.

Rubel, Ira Washington

Considered the inventor of the offset printing process.

The owner of a small print shop in New Jersey, in 1903 Rubel accidentally discovered that he could obtain better results with indirect printing using a blanket cylinder than with direct printing.

He covered the impression cylinder of a printing press with a rubber blanket and paper sheets were then fed incorrectly several times during a printing run.

The impression from the printing forme ended up on the rubber blanket and from there was passed on to the back of the sheet.

Rubel discovered that these misprints were of a better quality than the regular prints, and consequently went on to develop the first offset printing press.

Ruby

Rubylith

A transparent reddish material applied to a clear acetate sheet.

It photographs as opaque so it can be used to block out areas on a flat that should not appear on a particular negative or plate.

It is also used to add cut out areas to a flat that can have an image or halftone negative placed in the cut out to be exposed to the plate.

The cut out area is manually cut into the red transparent material and then the material is peeled off from the acetate sheet, leaving a clear opening in the rubylith.

The cut out area can also be used to expose the shape of the cut out, as a solid or with a screen placed behind it, directly to the plate to manually add an image to the plate.

Used for such purposes as adding screens to the image or a color to a logo.

Rubylith

Ruby

A transparent reddish material applied to a clear acetate sheet.

It photographs as opaque so it can be used to block out areas on a flat that should not appear on a particular negative or plate.

It is also used to add cut out areas to a flat that can have an image or halftone negative placed in the cut out to be exposed to the plate.

The cut out area is manually cut into the red transparent material and then the material is peeled off from the acetate sheet, leaving a clear opening in the rubylith.

The cut out area can also be used to expose the shape of the cut out, as a solid or with a screen placed behind it, directly to the plate to manually add an image to the plate.

Used for such purposes as adding screens to the image or a color to a logo.

Rule
  1. A straight line used as a graphic element.

  2. The thickness of the line is measured in points.

  3. A continuous line, thick or thin, that is used in decorative printing.

In the 1800s and early 1900s, title pages were often enclosed in plain rule-borders.

The term can also apply to a decorative line on a binding, which may be in blind or gilt.

Rule Weight

Thickness of the rule measured in points.

Runaround

Running text so that it fits around an illustration or other element.

Runnability

The paper’’s ability to hold ink on the surface consistently, to absorb ink uniformly, its dimensional stability, and its surface texture all affect how well a paper will run on the press.

Running Charge

Charges that are directly related to the cost of production, generally figured on per M basis.

It can include materials, press time, other machine operations and miscellaneous labor.

Running Directions

The direction through which paper is passed through the paper machine, generally the same as the grain direction.

The running direction is often indicated by an arrow on sheet packages. See also grain direction.

Running Foot

A line of text that appears at the bottom of almost every page of a section or document.

Running Head

A title used at the top of each page in a book.

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