Glossary of Printing Terms:S

S-HTTP

Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol

A set of rules and formats that enable secure transactions over the Web.

S/MIME

Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

Specifications in programming that make it possible to use encryption for MIME messaging types.

Saddle Stitching

The process of securing and binding the pages of a publication through the center fold with wire staples.

The term “saddle” derives from the saddle of the binding machine.

Safari

A web browser developed by Apple Computer, Inc. and is available as part of Mac OS X.

It was included as the default browser in Mac OS X v10.3 (Panther) and is the only browser bundled with Mac OS X v10.4 (Tiger).

Safari uses Apple’s brushed metal user interface, has a bookmark management scheme that functions like the iTunes jukebox software, integrates Apple’s QuickTime multimedia technology, and features a tabbed-browsing interface similar to that of Firefox, Internet Explorer 7 and Opera.

A Google search box is a standard component of the Safari interface, as are software services that automatically fill out web forms, manage passwords via Keychain and spell check entries into web page text fields.

The browser also includes an integrated pop-up ad blocker and a configurable image blocker.

Safari

Safelight

An enclosed darkroom lamp fitted with a filter to screen out light rays to which film and paper are sensitive.

Safelights

Lighting in which the material being used is not sensitive to, such as red lights being used when working with orthochromatic film bec

Safety Interlock

A feature on all Kodak Advantix cameras that prevents the film door from opening mid-roll and exposing film to light.

Safety Paper

A type of security paper that has been manufactured with a printed pattern.

The purpose of the pattern is to show evidence of any attempt made to alter a document by erasing or by chemical alteration.

Sales Book

A number of forms grouped together and bound into a book that has a cover made from heavy weight paper such as 150# tag.

The forms are filled out manually so the book will generally has a stiff backing material inside the back of the cover to give stiffness to the book.

Sans Serif

One of a number of typefaces without serifs.

Sans Serif Type

A typeface without serifs, the cross strokes on the ends of the letters.

Satellite Principle

The principle by which offset printing works.

Several complete units, including plate cylinder, blanket, inking unit and damping unit, are arranged around a central impression cylinder.

In this way, all the colors are printed in a single, wet-on-wet process.

Satin Finish Paper

Paper that has had a smooth finish applied.

Saturation
  1. Refers to how much a particular wavelength from a light source dominates the other wavelengths.

For example, with a weak dull blue, less of the blue wavelength would be visible than with a deep bright blue. With the bright blue, the blue wavelength is dominate over the other wavelengths of light (red and green).

  1. Saturation is the purity of color.

An attribute of perceived color, or the percentage of hue in a color.

Saturated colors are called vivid, strong, or deep.

Desaturated colors are called dull, weak, or washed out.

SC

SC, MWC, MFC, LWC, HWC, ULWC

Standard international acronyms for weights and grades of papers used in rotary offset and letterpress printing.

Coated stock can be identified HWC (heavy-weight coated), MWC (medium-weight coated), LWC (lightweight coated), or ULWC (ultra-lightweight coated).

All are wood pulp-based, but available in many varieties. MFC (machine-finished coated) paper is made primarily from ground wood pulp, has a grammage of 48 to 80 gsm, and may be high volume.

LWC paper is particularly lightweight stock for use on rotary offset machines. SC (supercalendered) paper is an uncoated wood pulp stock based mainly on ground wood and recycled content.

It features an additional finish applied by a separate supercalender.

SC CB Paper

Self Contained Coated Back Paper

Paper that has the same characteristics as self contained (SC) paper except it is also a (CB) paper which means it is coated on the back so that it can create an image on a (CF) coated front paper.

SC Paper

Self Contained Paper

A self imaging carbonless paper that does not need the use of any other carbonless stock to make an image appear.

When pressure is applied, it causes the chemicals on the front of the sheet to create an image.

This paper is used in ribbonless impact printers.

Scale

The capability of a program to reduce or enlarge an image.

Scaling

The process of calculating the amount of enlargement or reduction necessary to get an image to fit into an area of the layout.

Scanned Art

Art that has been converted into digital form for storage on a computer where it can be accessed for use in many types of applications.

Scanner
  1. A device for capturing image data which works by optically reading or scanning the original.

Light-sensitive sensors convert information regarding image brightness and colors into electrical values.

The two major types of scanners are the drum and the flatbed. See also drum scanner and flatbed scanner .

  1. A digitized image input device that can read text and graphics from a physical image and translate it into digital data that can be understood by a computer.
Scarce

Traditionally, a “scarce” publication isn’t as hard to find as a rare publication, but might take a few years to locate

Scatter Proof

The term used to describe a proof of an individual photo or group of photos that have not been included as part of the complete page layout. Scatter proofs are used to check color before the final proof.

SCF

Sectional Center Facility

A postal service facility that processes and distributes mail for post offices in a designated geographic area.

The area serviced is determined by the first 3 digits of the ZIP Code of the post offices.

Schopper’’s Tester

An instrument that tests paper’’s endurance to folding.

Scorching Emboss

The temperature of the die heating plate is increased beyond normal temperature ranges, when embossed a scorched effect occurs to the embossed image resulting in an antique or shaded appearance to the stock.

Scoring

A crease applied, in a straight line, to a sheet of paper to allow it to fold easier and more accurately.

Screen

In image reproduction terminology, an area made up of small geometric forms of either regular or random arrangement, for example round, square or other shaped dots and lines.

The screen is used to convert contone images into a black/white or full-color representation suitable for printing.

This is done by varying either the size or the frequency of the elements to reflect the brightness of the image.

Screen Angles

The angles at which the halftone screens must be place in relation to each other in order to avoid a moiré pattern from forming.

The common angles used are black at 45°, magenta at 75°, yellow at 90°, and cyan at 105°.

With regular screens the angle of the screen from the vertical.

When single colors are used, the screen is generally positioned diagonally (45° or 135°).

Screen Cells

The combination of recorder elements (RELs) into a visual (halftone) dot.

The physical size of the grid cell remains constant, and a computer program then defines the filling of the cell with picture elements or a pixel pattern in accordance with the color or gray value to be reproduced.

See Also Grid Cells .

Screen Dot

An element of an image based on a complex mathematical structure, according to which an area is defined and a gray value is determined.

The more exact the rendering of black is, the more accurate the gray values must be in the use of inks, toners or other chemicals.

Screen Dot Distribution

The manner in which the individual dots are arranged within a defined area of a screen.

There are two screening techniques, amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM).

Screen Element

A part or fragment of an image as seen on a computer monitor.

The smallest screen element is the dot, and several dots make up a pixel.

Screen Font

The letter forms used when the type is displayed on a computer screen.

They are often made of bitmaps even though when the final output goes to a printer, outline fonts are used.

Screen Model

Model generated by geometric modeling or computer simulation techniques and used for an optical comparison of different screening systems.

The process enables manufacturers of CtP imagesetters to develop new optimized screening systems.

Screen Printing

A printing method where a squeegee is used to force ink through a mesh fabric that has a stenciled image area that allows the ink to pass through the mesh to create the image.

Screen Proof

Proof used for layout and color information control, and to check the screen structures of a print. Screen proofs are intended to eliminate moiré, rosette and other undesired effects.

As the printing data contain no screen information before screening of the images in the RIP (raster image processor), screening must be performed before a screen proof is printed.

Screen Resolution

The number of pixels displayed on a screen; at present, high-resolution screens are capable of displaying 1024 × 768 pixels and more.

Screen Ruling

The number of lines of dots per inch, both vertically and horizontally, on a screen tint or halftone screen.

The number of dots per unit length that a screen contains.

Common specifications are l/cm (lines per cm) and lpi (lines per inch). “60 screen” means 60 l/cm and corresponds to approximately 150 lpi.

Screen Tint

A screen pattern that consists of dots that are all the same size and create an even tone.

Screening

Converting a continuous gray-scale image into dot patterns by using a halftone screen or a screen tint.

Scripts

Executable programs that perform specified tasks on the clients workstation and on the Web server.

Scroll

When there is too much information to fit on the screen, it is the function used to move up or down or from side to side to view the entire page.

SCSI

Small Computer System Interface

The industry standard for connecting peripheral devices to PCs.

Scuffing

Undesirable print abrasions caused by surface wear or rough handling.

Particularly problematc in packaging, scuffing may me minimized with scuff-proof inks, varnishes, and other coatings.

SDC System Developing Companies

Kodak and four other photo industry leaders who jointly developed the Advanced Photo System standards.

SDSL

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line

A Digital Subscriber Line DSL variant with E1-like data rates (72 to 2320 kbit/s).

It runs over one pair of copper wires, with a maximum range of about 3 kilometers. The main difference between ADSL and SDSL is that SDSL has the same upstream data transfer rate as downstream (symmetrical), whereas “ADSL”/a/adsl always has smaller upstream bandwidth (asymmetrical).

However, unlike ADSL, it can’t co-exist with a conventional voice service on the same pair as it takes over the entire bandwidth.

It is quite expensive and is mainly targetted at small and medium businesses who may host a server on site (eg a Terminal Server) so don’t want to use ADSL, but don’t need the higher performance of a leased line.

SDSL was never properly standardised until Recommendation G.991.2 (ex-G.shdsl) was approved by ITU-T.

SDSL is often confused with G.SHDSL and unfortunately, in Europe G.SHDSL was standardized by ETSI using the name ‘SDSL’.

This ETSI variant is compatible with the ITU-T G.SHDSL standardized regional variant for Europe.

Equipment routing SDSL support is usually proprietary equipment which only speaks to
SDSL equipment from the same vendor, or to SDSL equipment from other vendors that use the same DSL chipset.

Most new installations use G.SHDSL equipment instead of SDSL.

Sealant Coat

A coating applied to the back of the facestock to help assist the adhesive in sticking to it and to prevent some adhesives from bleeding through or staining the facestock.

It is only needed when using certain types of adhesives.

Search Engine

Software that instructs a program to search for specific information, such as Google or Yahoo.

Seasoning
  1. The process of allowing paper to set in the area in which it will be used so that it can adjust to the environment before being used.

  2. Allowing paper to acclimate in the pressroom for a few hours or days before printing, bringing its moisture level and temperature equal to that of the pressroom.

Second Class Mail

Reclassified as Periodicals.

A mail class that includes newspapers, magazines, newsletters or other printed publications that are sent out at specific intervals. See Periodicals.

Secondary

The three colors created by blending two primary colors.

Secondary Color

The color produced when equal amounts of two primary colors are mixed.

An example of an additive secondary color would be when you have 100% red light and 100% green light which produces the additive secondary color, yellow.

An example of a subtractive secondary color would be when you mix equal amounts of the subtractive primary colors, cyan and yellow, which produces the subtractive secondary color, green.

Secondary Label

A label that does not contain the main product identification but contains supportive information.

It is generally located on the sides or back of the product and may be smaller than the primary label.

Secondary Pulp

Pulp consisting of raw materials reclaimed from wastepaper.

The term can refer to chemical pulp, wood pulp or a mixture of the two.

Sectional Center Facility

SCF

A postal service facility that processes and distributes mail for post offices in a designated geographic area.

The area serviced is determined by the first 3 digits of the ZIP Code of the post offices.

Secure Document

A document that could be a target for fraud due to its monetary value or personal value, such as checks, academic transcripts, certificates, prescription pads and legal documents.

Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol

S-HTTP

A set of rules and formats that enable secure transactions over the Web.

Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

S/MIME

Specifications in programming that make it possible to use encryption for MIME messaging types.

Secure Socket Layer

SSL

A protocol providing a secure link between the Web server and the client application.

It provides authentication, message integrity, and privacy.

Security Paper

Paper that contains special features, such as dyes, florescent fibers, and watermarks, used on checks and other security sensitive documents.

Security Software

Software that is used to prevent unauthorized access of data and resources.

See-Through Register

A print element on banknotes used to protect against counterfeiting.

Parts of a character or symbol are printed on both sides of the note and only appear as a complete character when the note is held up to light.

Seed

Names and addresses added to a mailing list as a means of verifying that the mailing was delivered, that the package was accurate and to determine delivery time of the postal service to different regions.

Segmentation

Selecting part of a list according to specific criteria, such as gender, geographic location, frequency of ordering, profession and personal interests.

Selective Binding

The personalized production of bound print products from a selection of components.

Selective binding can be used to produce different versions of catalogs tailored to specific customer groups or when various advertising motifs are required for different issues of a magazine.

Selective Focus

Choosing a lens opening that produces a shallow depth of field.

Usually this is used to isolate a subject by causing most other elements in the scene to be blurred.

Self Contained Coated Back Paper

SC CB Paper

Paper that has the same characteristics as self contained (SC) paper except it is also a (CB) paper which means it is coated on the back so that it can create an image on a (CF) coated front paper.

Self Contained Paper

SC Paper

A self imaging carbonless paper that does not need the use of any other carbonless stock to make an image appear.

When pressure is applied, it causes the chemicals on the front of the sheet to create an image.

This paper is used in ribbonless impact printers.

Self Cover

A product where the cover stock is the same weight as the text stock instead of having a separate cover of heavier weight attached.

This type of cover is generally used on booklets and smaller publications.

Self-Adhesive Label

A pressure sensitive label.

Self-Mailer

A type of mailing device which does not require a standard business envelope or package as a means to send the item.

The different mail components, such as the letter, response piece and reply envelope, are all part of the single piece.

A self-mailer may be a post-card, a single-folded document, a tri-folded document or similarly produced items, commonly used for business purposes such as statements, checks and invoices.

However, it is also used for informaitonal and promotional mailing.

Self-Timer

An internal clock to allow the user to activate a digital camera and have the image shot in a delayed amount of time, such as 20 seconds.

Semi- Fine

Paper stock with a mechanical wood pulp content of more than five percent.

The term is usually reserved for uncoated papers, as coated stock is usually referred to as “slightly mechanical”.

Semi-Automatic

Labeling equipment that has part of its operation controlled directly by a human and the other part is controlled by the machine.

Semibold Type

A type that is inbetween that of a medium and boldface type.

Sendmail

The messaging transport utility used in UNIX.

Senefelder, Alois (1771-1834)

The inventor of lithography and stone printing. In 1796, Senefelder discovered that by using a greasy substance to write on polished Solnhofen limestone and then lightly etching it with an acidic gum Arabic solution, ink would only adhere to the areas which had been written on.

In 1818, Senefelder published his “Vollst Indiges Lehrbuch der Steindruckerei” (The Complete Textbook of Stone Printing), in which he outlined how the discovery came about.

SensaLite

Trademark for patented Kodak flash technology, employed in Kodak Advantix cameras, that automatically determines when flash is needed.

Separation

The decomposition of the color data of an image into separate colors (in accordance with the CMYK color model) for the individual passes of the four-color printing procedure; also denotes means the conversion of RGB colors in to CMYK colors.

Separation Algorithm

One of the formulas or procedures performed for color space transformation.

Separations

Refers to four single-color images generated by separating a color image into its cyan, magenta, yellow, and black components.

Separations are produced with the use of a process camera and the appropriate filters (red, green, and blue; the primary colors of light).

When a red filter is used, the red light is filtered out, leaving green and blue which combine to form the cyan image.

The green filter produces a magenta image, and so on. There are computer programs which will also accomplish this.

Serial Cable

An RS-232 standard computer connection used most often to connect analog modems for Web connections. Transmission speeds are very slow, carrying only a single bit of data per transmission.

Serial Cable/Port

An RS-232 standard computer connection used most often to connect analog modems for Web connections.

Transmission speeds are very slow, carrying only a single bit of data per transmission.

Serial Line Internet Protocol

SLIP

A set of rules and formats defining the way in which packets are transmitted over a serial network link such as a telephone line, allowing dialup connections to the Internet.

It is widely used but somewhat outdated.

Serialization

A work of fiction that is printed in successive parts first in a magazine and then in book form, or is printed as a book and then printed in successive parts in a magazine.

Series Author

An author whose work consists of series titles. Kevin J. Anderson, author of Star Wars; Young Jedi Knights, is an example.

Series Title

A collective title for a successive group of publications with a common theme or subject, which are usually published by the same publisher but not necessarily by the same author.

Star Wars, Sweet Valley High, and Goosebumps are examples of series titles.

Serif

A small stroke at the end of the lines of a letter.

This design feature is typical of so-called Roman faces.

Serifs cater to the perception mechanism of the human eye and thus make type faces easier to read.

Serif Type

A typeface that has the cross strokes on the ends of the letters.

Serigraphy

Silk Screen Printing.

Server

A computer or software package that provides shared services to the client workstations on a network, such as a file server, a mail server or a print server.

Service Bureau

A company that supplies a specialized service to a particular industry.

In Direct Mail this is a company that specializes in data processing functions that are necessary to maintain the mailing lists.

Service Temperature

The temperature range at which a label will be exposed to while attached to the product.

Set Form

A text layout in which the length of the lines varies according to the placement of optional images or graphic elements.

Set Off

The transfer of ink from one side of the printed sheet to the back side of the sheet on top of it due to the ink not properly drying before the sheets come in contact with each other.

Set Solid

Type that is set without inserting any space between the lines.

Set Up

1.The process of setting up and adjusting a printing press for a particular ink, paper and specifications prior to printing.

This includes adjusting the infeed, grippers and guides, adjusting ink for proper coverage, registering copy, and matching the printed piece with the proof to be sure everything is correct. Also referred to as makeready.

  1. The paper used while making all the necessary adjustments before printing the actual run. Also referred to as makeready.
Sewn

A pamphlet that has been sewn together and was not originally bound with boards.

Offprints are typically sewn.

Sewn Case Binding

A book made with a stiff outer cover, which is usually covered with cloth, vinyl or leather.

The signatures in the book have been sewn together and then the first and last pages of the book are glued to the inside of the front and back cover.

The spine of the signatures is not glued to the book.

Sewn Soft Cover Binding

Binding of paperback or soft covers that are sewn onto the pages of a book rather than with the use of adhesive or wire binding.

Sextodecimo

A small book, approximately four inches wide and six inches tall.

To make it, each sheet of paper is folded four times, forming sixteen leaves (32 pages).

Also see 16mo.

SFB

Sustainable Forestry Board

The Sustainable Forestry Board, Inc is committed to making forests work for today and tomorrow.

This diverse group of conservationists, scientists, foresters, public officials, and landowners promotes the long-term health and sustainability of our forests by governing the Sustainable Forestry Initiative Standard.

The SFB is the sole body responsible for the content of the SFI Standard and the Audit Procedures and Qualifications.

SFB

SFI

Sustainable Forestry Initiative

The Sustainable Forestry Initiative program is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures developed by professional foresters, conservationists and scientists, among others that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, soil and water quality.

There are currently over 150 million acres of forestland in North America enrolled in the SFI program, making it among the world’s largest sustainable forestry programs.

The SFI program was adopted by AF&PA in 1994, and as a testament to the association’s strong commitment to the goal of sustainable forestry, participation in the SFI program is a condition of membership for AF&PA.

Since 1994, AF&PA has asked 17 members to leave the association for failing to meet the SFI Standard.

The SFI Program is overseen by the SFB, an independent 501©3 organization, which is responsible for maintaining and enhancing the SFI Standard and verification procedures.

SFI

SGML

Standard Generalized Markup Language

An international standard system used for organizing and tagging elements of a document.

It does not do any particular formatting but instead tags elements that can then be used to format elements in different ways.

A standardized language (ISO 8879) used to depict structured texts.

SGML is very versatile, but is difficult to use due to its size.

Of greater significance is XML, a reduced version of SGML designed specifically for exchanging structured data in the Internet.

SGML Document Interchange Format

This refers to a data structure that allows a main SGML document and its related document to be combined for interchange in a way that will allow the recipient of the data to reconstitute the documents.

Shade

To darken by adding black.

Shading

To display degrees of darkness.

The choices are black, white, and all shades of gray in between.

Shadow

The darkest area in a photograph or illustration.

Shareware

Copyrighted software that you can download off the internet to use on a trial basis.

The user is given a trial period of time to use the software.

Then if continued use is desired, the user is expected to pay for the software.

Sharpen

Making halftone dots smaller in color correction and platemaking by adjusting film exposure time.

This is sometimes done to offset for the dot gain that occurs when being printed on the press. Sharpening is also done electronically by exaggerating the difference between tones or colors at their edges.

Some paint and color manipulation programs have tools to sharpen selected areas of the image rather than having it affect the entire image.

Sharpening is helpful when the image only needs touching up in specific areas.

Sheet Fed

A printing process where the paper being fed into the press is in sheet form.

Sheet Feeder

The component of a sheetfed offset printing press or a print finisher in which the sheet is aligned to front and side lays.

The function of the feeder is to align the sheets arriving in shingles or as separate sheets and to position them before they are transferred to the gripper systems.

Sheet Music

Compositions printed on unbound paper.

Sheetfed Offset Press

The most popular form of lithographic printing used today, of which there are two variations, sheetfed offset and web offset.

Sheetfed offset presses print individual, cut sheets.

These presses are subdivided into the following format classes, indicating the maximum format of sheet that can be used: 0 500 mm x 700 mm I 560 mm x 830 mm II 610 mm x 860 mm III 650 mm x 965 mm III b 720 mm x 1020 mm IV 780 mm x 1120 mm V 890 mm x 1260 mm VI 1000 mm x 1400 mm VII 1100 mm x 1600 mm X 1400 mm x 2000 mm

Sheets

Individual flat cut size pieces of paper. Available in many sizes.

Shelf Life
  1. The length of time that a product is expected to maintain its anticipated quality level.

  2. The time period in which an item, such as a catalog, remains effective.

Shelf Worn

Refers to condition; the book shows visible signs of wearing on the binding and/or edges due to numerous removals and placements on countless shelves.

Shell

A program in the UNIX operating system that interprets the commands entered at the computer.

A shell can run simple programs referred to as shell scripts.

Shingled

The gutter margin is gradually narrowed from the outside page of a signature to the inside portion of each page, when the book is assembled.

Shockwave

A program developed by Macromedia that allows Web pages to include multimedia objects.

Short Grain

When the fibers in paper run perpendicular to the long dimension of the paper. For 8 1/2” x 11”, short grain would mean the grain runs the 8 1/2” direction.

Short Message Service

SMS

The Short Message Service (SMS), often called text messaging, is a means of sending short messages to and from mobile phones.

SMS was originally defined as part of the GSM series of standards in 1985 as a means of sending messages of up to 160 characters, to and from GSM mobile handsets.

Since then, support for the service has expanded to include alternative mobile standards such as ANSI CDMA networks and AMPS, satellite and landline networks.

Most SMS messages are mobile-to-mobile text messages, though the standard supports other types of broadcast messaging as well.

Show-Through

Showthrough happens when the printed image from one site of a sheet of printed paper shows through to the other side.

Usually occurs on thin newspaper or magazine printing paper. An ‘off-white’ sheet is often used to help reduce this in thinner paper stocks.

Shrink Labels

Shrink labels are non-adhesive sleeves constructed from film material that shrinks when heat is applied.

Shrink Sleeves

A sleeve like label that is constructed from shrink film, used for shrink labels.

The sleeve can cover the entire container or just a portion of it.

Shrink Wrapping

A method of wrapping packages or products with a plastic film and then applying heat so that the wrap fits tight to the product.

Plastic wrapping is used to package a product in specific quantities and is also used for protection purposes.

It also adds some stability to the product when storing.

Shutter
  1. The active device that opens and closes in a mechanical camera or the on and off mechanism in a digital camera that allows light from the subject matter to enter the camera in order to capture the image.

  2. Blades, a curtain, plate, or some other movable cover in a camera that controls the time during which light reaches the film.

Shutter Priority
  1. The camera feature that will enable the user to control the shutter speed, keeping it open for longer exposures or closing it quickly to capture moving action.

An exposure mode on an automatic or autofocus camera that lets you select the desired shutter speed; the camera sets the aperture for proper exposure.

  1. If you change the shutter speed, or the light level changes, the camera adjusts the aperture automatically.
Shutter Speed

1. Mechanical

The length of time the shutter remains open for light to strike the CCD image sensor.

    1. Electronic

The length of time read by the camera’’s light sensing processor used to activate the speed of the shutter for the digital image.

Side Stitched

Staples are inserted into the pages in the inner margin at the binding edge.

The staples are inserted from the front side of the book through the pages to the back.

Side wire binding can be used when the book is too thick to be saddle stitched.

Side Stub

When the stub is on the left or right side of a unit set.

Side Wire Stitching

A form of wire stitching that is different from saddle stitching.

Instead of staples being inserted into the side or saddle of the pages, staples are inserted into the top of the gathered sheets or pages and pressed down vertically until reaching the back side of the booklet.

It is often used as a means to bind a larger quantity of sheets together than can be saddle stitched.

Sidebar

Text and/or graphics which relates to the main document but is placed next to it and separated by placing lines or white space to between them.

Sidelighting

Light striking the subject from the side relative to the position of the camera; produces shadows and highlights to create modeling on the subject.

Signature
  1. A printed sheet that is folded one or more times and becomes a section of a book or publication.

  2. Markings made on a book block to ensure the correct sequence of sheets, sheet parts and sections when bound.

  3. A group of folded pages that, when bound and trimmed with other signatures, form a book or pamphlet.

Also known as gathering. Also refers to a person’s self-handwritten name Autograph Signature.

SIIA

Software & Information Industry Association

The principal trade association for the software and digital content industry.

SIIA provides global services in government relations, business development, corporate education and intellectual property protection to the leading companies that are setting the pace for the digital age.

http://www.siia.net/

Silhouette

An image that has had the background eliminated from behind it.

Silicone Coating

A polymer material that repels adhesive.

It is applied to the liner layer of a pressure sensitive label, acting as a release coating which allows the label to be removed from the liner.

Silicone Treated Paper

A strong paper with a glazed finish that is treated with silicones on one side.

This produces a release quality that is necessary for the liners used for pressure sensitive paper.

Silkscreen Printing

A printing process that uses a stencil that is mounted on stretched silk.

Ink is pressed through the silk in the open areas of the stencil to create an image on the substrate being printed.

Silver Halide

The material most commonly used for printing plates, the characteristics of which include high light sensitivity and a wide exposure range.

The disadvantages of silver halide plates include the impossibility of daylight processing, high variations between batches and high contamination of the plate developer.

Simple Camera

A camera that has few or no adjustments to be made by the picture-taker. Usually, simple cameras have only one size of lens opening and one or two shutter speeds and do not require focusing by the picture-taker.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SMTP

The main protocol used to send e-mail over the internet. It has a set of rules and formats that define the manner in which an electronic mail message has to be transmitted.

Simple Network Management Protocol

SNMP

The set of rules and formats that communication devices use to connect to a TCP/IP network.

Simple Object Access Protocol

SOAP

An Internet standard that allows XML enabled data to be shared across applications so that processes and transactions can occur between parties.

Simplex

Refers to printing on one side of the sheet only.

Simulated Watermark

An image applied to the paper that is visible when viewed at an angle.

Simulated watermarks are applied after the paper manufacturing process.

They can be applied by the paper manufacturer or by the printer.

An artificial watermark can be seen from one side only.

It is generally applied to the back side but can be applied to the front side also.

The watermark is achieved by printing the image in opaque white ink, transparent ink or by using varnish.

Simultaneous Contrast

The ability of the eye to process hues depending on the surrounding colors.

The phenomenon of simultaneous contrast results from the fact that the human eye does not reproduce colors as accurately as possible in accordance with their physical values, but tries to emphasize differences.

This also means that the change of a color tone in a color design may fundamentally change the character of the design.

Single Face Carbon

Carbon with coating on one side only.

Single Ply

Forms that are made up of only a single sheet of paper opposed to multi-part forms.

Single Sheet Products

Any single ply form or sheet that is not a laser form or a continuous one part form.

Single-Lens-Reflex Camera

SLR Camera

A camera in which you view the scene through the same lens that takes the picture.

Site

A location on the Web that consists of a home page and generally several other pages that are linked to the home page.

Size
  1. A reference to the dimensions of paper rolls or sheet stock.

  2. A starch or casein based solution added to the paper, when it is manufactured in order to reduce the moisture and ink absorbency.

It could be used as a means to reduce linting or chalking and to improve the ink holdout or drying characteristics.

Sizing

The process by which certain materials such as glue, rosin or starch are added to the furnish or pulp mass of a paper before processing.

Sizing increases the ink receptivity of a paper and gives it other special characteristics.

Special grades may be subsequently surfaced-sized on the dry end of the paper machine.

Sizing Strength

Refers to the amount of force necessary to separate particles from the surface of the paper as it moves vertically.

Picking resistance is a key criterion for offset-printing applications.

Skeleton

The waste area of the facestock and adhesive that is removed from around the label after it is die cut. Also referred to as the matrix..

Skew

The slant or distortion of an object, a character, a bar or bar code, in respect to a straight line that is at a right angle to the slant.

Skid

A wooden platform used to hold stacks of paper or cartons. Used to store or ship materials or finished products. Another term for pallet.

Skip Dot

Unprinted areas that remain void of ink or any printing.

Skip Perforation

A partial perforation that runs parallel to the direction that the web is running through the press. Also called a jump perforation.

Slab Serif Font

A font type with slab-like or serifs, originally called “Egyptienne”.

Slave Flash

A dual flash or companion flash that fires a flash after the light from the primary flash is detected.

Slide

A photographic transparency (positive) mounted for projection.

SLIP

Serial Line Internet Protocol

A set of rules and formats defining the way in which packets are transmitted over a serial network link such as a telephone line, allowing dialup connections to the Internet.

It is widely used but somewhat outdated.

Slip Sheeting

The inserting of a blank sheet in between printed product to protect against setoff and scuffing.

Is also used to separate stacks of paper into specified amounts to indicate a unit, such as a book or a specific package amount.

SLIP/PPP

Serial Line Internet Protocol and Point-to-Point Protocol

Slipcase

A box open on one side so that when a book is slipped into it, the spine shows.

Slit Back

A slit in the liner of a pressure sensitive label, used to assist in the removal of the facestock from the liner.

Slit Face

A slit die cut on the face of the label or a tab slit at one end to make the labels easier to remove from the liner.

Slitter
  1. Cutting wheels, mounted on a press, collator or other converting equipment, that cut sheets into specific widths or trims the edges of a form as it is being converted.

  2. A device that cuts the punched holes from continuous forms as they are coming out of a printe

Slitting

Cutting paper by the use of a cutting wheel. Paper may be slit into smaller sheets or a web of paper may be slit into narrower rolls.

Slow Sync Mode

A setting on a digital camera’’s flash in order to allow enough light for natural looking tones and backgrounds.

The flash fires a short burst to provide light for the foreground subject, while the shutter remains open longer allowing a lighter background.

SLR Camera

Single-Lens-Reflex Camera

A camera in which you view the scene through the same lens that takes the picture.

Small Caps

The term used for upper-case letters with a size equal to the basic height of lower-case letters.

Small caps are used to emphasize individual words in a text.

Small Computer System Interface

SCSI

The industry standard for connecting peripheral devices to PCs.

Smart Labels

Labels that are used for the identification of objects and that contain transponders as components of radio-based wireless identification systems.

These devices can be designed so small and light that they can be easily incorporated in to standard adhesive labels.

See also RFID

Smart Labels

Labels containing electronic devices that have read/write memory used to store and access information.

The electronic device is a radio frequency identification (RFID) transponder or tag.

The RFID technology, like bar codes, is used to automatically capture data.

It is different from a bar code in that it can hold much more data, it can be reprogrammed, and its data is accessed by a reader but it does not need optical contact with the reader to be read.

SmartMedia

A flash memory-based storage card designed specifically for digital cameras. It is available in 8, 16, 32 and 64 MB.

The cards can be read by adapters for PC or with the use of FlashPath, which allows cards to be read by almost any Mac or Windows-based computer’’s floppy disk drive.

SMDS

Switched Multimegabit Data Service

A very high-speed transfer of data offered by the telephone companies.

SMIL

Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language

An XML technology, which enables XML programming language to author content for multimedia applications.

Smooth Finish

A finish that has been made smooth and level from the paper passing through sets of rollers during the papermaking process.

Smoothness

The even and consistent continuity of the paper’’s surface.

How the paper receives the ink is affected by the smoothness of the surface.

SMS

Short Message Service

The Short Message Service (SMS), often called text messaging, is a means of sending short messages to and from mobile phones.

SMS was originally defined as part of the GSM series of standards in 1985 as a means of sending messages of up to 160 characters, to and from GSM mobile handsets.

Since then, support for the service has expanded to include alternative mobile standards such as ANSI CDMA networks and AMPS, satellite and landline networks.

Most SMS messages are mobile-to-mobile text messages, though the standard supports other types of broadcast messaging as well.

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

The main protocol used to send e-mail over the internet.

It has a set of rules and formats that define the manner in which an electronic mail message has to be transmitted.

Smudge Resistance

Paper’’s ability to resist ink blurring or smearing.

Smudge resistance is related to the paper’’s ability to absorb ink.

SNAP

Specifications for Non-Heatset Advertising Printing

A set of guidelines that specify color standards, film densities, screen rulings, reverses, surprinted type, proofing, color bars, and proofing stock for the printing of advertising by non-heatset, offset presses, generally on newsprint or similar uncoated stock.

These guidelines were established by industry volunteers, along with help from the Non-Heatset Web Section of PIA.

Snap Out

A multiple part form that is fastened together in a perforated stub.

The individual parts are detached at the perforation.

Each form is an individual set, opposed to continuous forms that are attached to each other in a continuous stream.

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol

The set of rules and formats that communication devices use to connect to a TCP/IP network.

SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol

An Internet standard that allows XML enabled data to be shared across applications so that processes and transactions can occur between parties.

Socket
  1. In an operating system, it is a software object (not a physical component), that connects an application to the network protocol.

  2. A receptacle for plugging in a microprocessor or any other hardware device.

Soft Cover

Typically is synonymous with paperback, but it can also describe a book with a limp cover or a flex-cover.

Soft Dot

A halftone dot with outside edges that are weak.

The dot appears as if it has a halo around it.

Soft Focus

Produced by use of a special lens that creates soft outlines.

Soft Lighting

Lighting that is low or moderate in contrast, such as on an overcast day.

Soft or Discretionary Hyphen

A special coded hyphen that is placed in a specific place in the word so that if the word falls at the end of a line, it will be hyphenated where the coded hyphen was placed.

If the flow of the text changes for some reason, and the word does not have to be hyphenated, the hyphen will automatically not be used.

Soft Proof

A proof that is seen on a color video monitor, as opposed to a hard proof on paper.

SOHO

Small Office/Home Office

9 employees or less.

Solander Case

A box used to preserve books; the back is hinged so the front falls down and is kept closed by a latch.

It was invented by an assistant librarian, Daniel Charles Solander (1732-1782), for the preservation of botanical specimens in the British Museum.

Solid Printing

When an area on the paper is printed with 100% ink coverage of one color.

Solvent or Chemical Reactive Ink

This type ink reacts to solvents or chemicals, such as bleach, alcohol or acetone.

When exposed to the solvents or chemicals, these inks will run, change color, or cause a stain to develop.

Solvent Reactive Ink

This type ink reacts to solvents or chemicals, such as bleach, alcohol or acetone.

When exposed to the solvents or chemicals, these inks will run, change color, or cause a stain to develop.

Solvent Resistance

The ability of paper, film, adhesive or ink to resist adverse reactions when exposed to solvents.

SONET

Synchronous Optical Network

A high-capacity network that provides high speed transmitting of data for fiber optic media.

Sort

The arrangement of names, by the computer, according to specifc standards established by the USPS to obtain bulk mail discounts.

Source Code

Code numbers printed on each piece in a direct mail package.

They are used for double checking that the correct pieces are going into the mail package but the main purpose is to track response information accurately.

Soy Based Ink

Inks whose pigment vehicles contain soybean oils instead of petroleum products.

Soybean inks are a good alternative to petroleum base inks because of their ease of use and because of their environmental considerations.

Spacing

The adjustment of the space between letters in a text.

Spam

The inappropriate use of the Internet or other networks to send a mass-mailing of a message to people who did not ask for it.

Spamming
  1. Sending a large number of messages to users that did not ask for them.

  2. Also, a term used to describe when a website designer incorporates extra and irrelevant information on a web page, usually as word lists or as text hidden in the background, for the purpose of making the search engines find these words and display their site at the top of the index listing. T

his practice interferes with providing others with quality searches and is strongly discouraged.

When detected, some search engines will automatically remove the pages from their index.

SPDL

Standard Page Description Language

A page description language that is designed as a superset of PostScript.

Special Color

A color that cannot be created with the standard methods of the CMYK color scale.

Examples are fluorescent colors, gold and silver.

Specific Volume

Reciprocal of paper density, also known as specific volume

Specifications

Specs

A complete description of the features of a product, such as type size and style, ink colors, paper type, quantity to be produced, and other special features.

Specifications for Non-Heatset Advertising Printing

SNAP

A set of guidelines that specify color standards, film densities, screen rulings, reverses, surprinted type, proofing, color bars, and proofing stock for the printing of advertising by non-heatset, offset presses, generally on newsprint or similar uncoated stock.

These guidelines were established by industry volunteers, along with help from the Non-Heatset Web Section of PIA.

Specifications for Web Offset Publications

SWOP

A set of guidelines that specify color standards, film densities, screen rulings, reverses, overprinted type, proofing, color bars, and proofing stock for printing web offset publications.

These guidelines have been set up to promote uniform communication throughout the different areas of the publishing process to strive for quality color in web offset publications.

Specs

Specifications

A complete description of the features of a product, such as type size and style, ink colors, paper type, quantity to be produced, and other special features.

Spectral Color

Light of a single wavelength. When white light is separated by means of a prism, a continuum of the spectral colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet is produced.

A spectral color cannot be further separated.

Spectrodensitometer

A device used primarily to measure optical density and color values of images, but is increasingly being built with additional functionality measuring paper tones and special color values.

This device is a combination of a densitometer, a colorimeter and a spectrophotometer.

Spectrophotometer

An instrument that attains color measurements for the subjective perception of colors and presents them in a simple, practical manner.

A spectrophotometer usually measures the ratio of incident light and reflected light of a color sample in exactly defined wavelength steps and distances over the total visible range.

The measured data is converted to and displayed as established CIE color specification standards.

Speedmaster CD 102 Duo

A press from Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG designed for offset and flexographic printing and high-quality inline production.

The machine can perform such special functions as applying opaque white onto metallic foils, or the use of high-quality gold or silver inks that can be overprinted inline with offset inks.

Flexographic units can be used upstream or downstream of the press’ six offset printing units, and printers can combine conventional inks, water-based coatings, UV inks and UV coatings at will.

A special chambered blade system known as the FlexoKit is available for gold and silver coatings, which consist of large, ultra-thin aluminum pigments.

Spider

A software program used for searching the Web for specific purposes, such as cataloging the words in URLs.

It is used by search engines to search sites for information to be indexed.

Spine
  1. The edge of a book that is bound.

  2. The part of the book opposite of the opening, which is visible when the book is shelved.

Spine Lean

Refers to the condition of a book; the spine is no longer straight and appears crooked or twisted.

Also known as Cocked.

Spiral Binding

Book binding that consists of a spiral wire or plastic that is wound through holes.

Spiral Laid Lines

A laid paper with the lines running parallel to the grain opposed to perpendicular to the grain.

Spiralbound

An inexpensive type of binding utilizing wire or plastic coils as the spine.

It is an increasingly popular way for small publishers to publish a work or for an author to quickly self-publish.

Also known as Comb or Coil bound.

Splice

The joining of two webs to produce one continuous web by the use of tape or adhesive to join them together.

Split Back

A slit in the liner of a pressure sensitive label, used to assist in the removal of the facestock from the liner.

Split Face

A slit die cut on the face of the label or a tab slit at one end to make the labels easier to remove from the liner.

Split Run
  1. When a printed publication is bound in two different ways.

The printing is the same, just different binding methods are used.

  1. Using different images to produce different editions of a publication.

A magazine may have a different edition for rural residents than they would for residents in a metropolitian area.

Split Seal

The gum adhesive on the seal flap is broken where the flap covers the envelope seams, preventing flaps from sticking to the back panel when stored in humid conditions.

Spoilage

Unusable printed product that must be discarded due to an error that is detected or an accident occurring before it is delivered to the customer.

Sponsored Top-Level Domain

A sponsored top-level domain is a generic top-level domain proposed by an independent agency, with that agency establishing and enforcing rules restricting the eligibility of registrants to use the TLD.

Spool
  1. The space, which is usually found on the hard drive, used by a spooler to store jobs.

  2. A group of jobs waiting to be executed or printed.

Spooler

Software that is used on computers and printing systems that holds files in a print queue and then sends them to an external device, such as a printer.

This then frees up the system so that you do not have to wait for printing to be completed before continuing to work.

Spot

The smallest unit of a digitized image that can be either displayed on the screen or printed.

Spot Carbon

A made to order carbon paper from which carbon is omitted in certain areas so that the printing of data on the top sheet of a form will not go through in specific areas.

Spot Coating

Coating paper only in specific areas opposed to all over coating.

Spot Color

Printing with one or more solid colors, generally black ink is used with the addition of other colors.

It is used to add highlight and add color to a printed product without having to print with four color process.

A color that cannot be created with the standard methods of the CMYK color scale.

Examples are fluorescent colors, gold and silver.

Spot Gluing

A method of fastening forms that uses spots of glue instead of a continuous line of glue.

Generally used to make it easier to separate sections of the form.

Spot Label

A label that does not extend completely around the container.

It generally is less than half of the circumference of the container.

Spot Metering

Light is measured in a small circular area around the center of the image.

Spot or Partial Metering

Light is measured in a small circular area around the center of the image.

Spot Varnish

When varnish is applied only to certain areas of the printed product to highlight those areas.

Spotting

Retouching a processed print with a pencil or brush (with watercolors or dyes) to eliminate spots left by dust or scratches on the negative.

Spread
  1. When the image of a lighter color is slightly enlarged so that it overlaps the image of a darker color background.

  2. One artboard or production unit consisting of two pages that face each other.

Spreading

The creation of an overlapping area where two colors adjoin in order to make up for imprecisions in the printing process. See also “knockout”.

Sprung

Refers to condition; the text block is separate from its binding.

SQL

Structured Query Language

A specialized programming language used to perform queries on databases.

SQL/DS

Structured Query Language/Data System

Square Dot

A dot that is square in appearance, opposed to a round or elongated dot.

Square Sheet

A sheet that has the same tear resistance and strength against the grain as it does with the grain.

Squeeze Out

When the adhesive on a pressure sensitive labels comes out the edges around the label, the sides of a roll of labels or the sides of a stack of sheet labels, generally caused by excess pressure being applied to the labels.

SRE

Stamped Reply Envelope

A postage paid return envelope provided in the direct mail package for the purpose of convenience in returning the response to the offer.

SSL

Secure Socket Layer

A protocol providing a secure link between the Web server and the client application.

It provides authentication, message integrity, and privacy.

Stabilized

When paper has been conditioned so that its moisture content is the same as the surrounding air.

Stack

Paper fed into a cutting machine for cutting.

Stack Height

The maximum height of a stack accepted by the cutting machine.

Stacker
  1. A component at the delivery end of a press or collator that holds the printed sheets or collated forms as they come off the machine.

  2. A component of a printer that holds the sheets that have been output from the printer.

Stain

Discolored areas on film or paper, usually caused by contaminated developing solutions or by insufficient fixing, washing, or agitation.

Stain Resistance

The ability of a label to not stain the surface it is applied to and to resist being discolored itself by exposure to the product.

Stamped Reply Envelope

SRE

A postage paid return envelope provided in the direct mail package for the purpose of convenience in returning the response to the offer.

Standard Color Space

A mathematical model for determining the chromes and lightness of the respective parts of the spectral range in an objective manner.

Standard Generalized Markup Language

SGML

An international standard system used for organizing and tagging elements of a document.

It does not do any particular formatting but instead tags elements that can then be used to format elements in different ways.

A standardized language (ISO 8879) used to depict structured texts.

SGML is very versatile, but is difficult to use due to its size.

Of greater significance is XML, a reduced version of SGML designed specifically for exchanging structured data in the Internet.

Standard Mail Class A

Mail that would not be considered First Class or Periodical Mail.

A mail classification formerly known as Bulk Mail or Third Class Mail.

Standard Page Description Language

SPDL

A page description language that is designed as a superset of PostScript

Standard Tristimulus Values

The standard values determined based on the manner in which the three types of receptors on the human retina process orange red (x), green (y) and blue (z).

These standard values form the basis of the CIELAB color system.

Standardization

A process by which production conditions and color standards are specified, which includes the determination of required colorimetric and densitometric values as well as of dot gain for the CMYK process colors.

As far as ink and paper, the standards can be identified in tests and documented.

In order to optimize the prepress stage, all necessary output devices are calibrated at the beginning so that they always deliver identical, repeatable results.

In a further step, the imagesetters are adjusted so that the desired dot gain in printing is ensured. Once standardization has been carried out, the color space of the printing press and upstream output systems is measured.

The data determined is then used to define ICC profiles, which are fed into the workflow to ensure true color through all stages – from the calibrated monitor to the proof and the printing press.

Start/Stop Characters

A bar code character that tells the reader when to start and stop reading.

Started

Refers to condition; a portion of the pages are protruding beyond the fore-edge of the book.

The pages are coming loose from the binding but are still attached.

Not as loose as shaken.

The most common use is to describe a condition that is “starting” to happen (for instance, a crack that’s beginning to happen to a hinge).

Stat

A photostat, a copy of a printed page, reproduced on photographic paper.

State

Minor changes made to a portion of the edition during the manufacturing stage and before all of the books were complete and released.

The changes can be intentional. For example, a different state may be caused by a correction in the text or illustrations, an insertion of cancels or advertisements, or a different paper used without the intention of creating a separate issue.

The changes can also be accidental; for example, a variation in the text or illustrations might occur during the printing.

The term does not refer to condition.

Static Data

Information that remains the same from page to page.

Static Electricity

Electrical charges contained in paper that is too dry.

Problems may occur when printing and processing paper that contains static electricity.

Static Eliminator

A device used to neutralize static electricity.

Step and Repeat

The repeated exposure of an image to form a specific pattern.

Used to expose plates with the number of images up that will be printed on the press.

Also used to develop a repeated pattern to be used as a background for different types of products.

Stet

A proofreading term which indicates that the copy is to be left as it originally was and any corrections that have been marked should be ignored.

Stiffness

A property of paper to resist bending and its ability to support its own weight when handled.

The stiffness of the paper affects its feeding ability and its ability to avoid distortion due to the pull of the ink during the printing process.

The stiffness is important to the converting operations for forms and envelopes.

Stippling

A paper converting process that produces an embossed surface.

Stitched Binding

Sewing, through the center fold by means of thread, was done to secure the signatures and to bind the publication.

Stitcher

A device used for stitching printed products with wire staples.

The term is more generally applied to gatherer-stitchers, which perform all processes involved in the manufacture of wire-stitched magazines and brochures.

Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG markets stitchers under the brand name Stitchmaster.

Stitching

A binding process that uses a roll of wire on a machine that creates a staple to bind several sheets together.

Stitching allows for a larger quantity of sheets to be bound than traditional stapling.

Stochastic Screening

Stochastic screening, also known as frequency modulation (FM), is a relatively new method of reproducing halftone screens.

Traditional halftone screens – also called amplitude modification (AM) – simply adjust the size of the dots to reproduce tonal variations in images. Larger dots produce darker tones, whilst smaller dots reproduces the lighter areas of an image.

Stochastic screening aims to achieve a higher quality reproduction of graphic images by using complex mathematical algorithms to modify the number of halftone dots.

By varying their position and clustering of halftone dots, stochastic screening can achieve a smoother tonal reproduction and a higher quality printed reproduction of image detail.

Another advantage of using a stochastic screening method is that it can have a dramatic effect on reducing the potential for moire patterns to appear.

Images are converted digitally into screens made up of very small dots which are equal in size, but of variable spacing.

The variable dot pattern eliminates many of the moiré patterns and allows for more than four colors to be used to represent an image.

This is the primary aspect of high-fidelity printing.

Stock

Paper or other materials on hand in inventory waiting to be printed or converted.

Stock Formats

Page formats for which complete programming detail has been prepared because of frequently use of the same format.

Stock Forms

Forms that are held in stock and pulled out to be shipped as they are ordered.

The forms are complete and generally do not require any further manufacturing operations.

Stock Sizes & Weights

The sizes and weights of the paper on hand in inventory at the paper manufacturer’’s, distributor’’s or converter’’s facilities, available for distribution or converting.

Stock Tab

Economical continuous stock forms that are generally preprinted with rules or bars.

Stone Printing

A form of lithographic printing that involves the use of Solnhofen limestone from the Franconia region of Germany for the printing forme.

Invented by Alois Senefelder in 1796, the technology was particularly popular in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, though today stone printing is generally only used for graphics work.

Stop Bath

An acid rinse, usually a weak solution of acetic acid, used as a second step when developing black-and-white film or paper.

It stops development and makes the hypo (fixing bath) last longer.

Stopping Down

Changing the lens aperture to a smaller opening; for example, from f/8 to f/11.

Storyboard

A group of images on paper or mounted on a board, which represents the flow of a video or multimedia project.

Straight Copy

Copy that does not contain any charts, tables, formulas, photos, or illustrations, but contains only text.

Straight Grain Morocco

Morocco leather with an artificial straight-line pattern, which is usually used in more expensive bindings.

Stream

The transmission or intended transmission of continuous sequence of data elements.

Stretch

The “give” characteristic of paper when it is subject to stress and strain.

Stretch Labels

A label constructed of a stretch film material that has elasticity to it.

The label is stretched over the container and released when it is in the proper location. Once released, it will fit snug and form to the contours of the container.

The stretch sleeve label does not need any glue or heat to enable it to stay in place.

Stretch Resistance

The level at which paper can resist stretching, measured in tensile strength.

The level of stretch ressistance is important when the paper is to be folded or subjected to stress and strain.

Strike Through

When the ink printed on one side of the sheet penetrates the paper and is visible on the other side due to ink problems.

It differs from show through where the problem results from lack of opacity in the paper.

Strip Gumming

When adhesive gum is applied in line patterns.

Stripe Carbon

Carbon paper that has strips of uncoated areas running parallel with the web.

The uncoated areas are located where image transfer is not desired.

Stripper

The person who manually assembles the negatives used in the platemaking process.

Stripping
  1. To assemble and combine film or negatives to produce the final film for platemaking.

This process is now done electronically by many companies, bypassing the manual process altogether.

  1. In reference to labels it is the removal of the matrix or waste material from around a pressure sensitive label after it has been die cut.
Stroke

The line or lines forming a character of a typeface.

Structured Query Language

SQL

A specialized programming language used to perform queries on databases.

Stub
  1. The perforated portion of a snap out or continuous form where the different parts are fastened together.

On a snap out they are described as a top stub, bottom stub or side stub, depending on its location. On continuous form they are a left stub or a right stub.

  1. A narrow strip of paper on the inside margin, between leaves of a book.

Usually evidence that a plate or other matter has been removed or that there is an illustration attached into the binding.

Stub Size

The measurement from the edge of the paper to the perforation forming the stub.

Stuffer

Preprinted material which is inserted into a piece intended for mailing, such as an invoice or bank statement.

The stuffer is generally used as an advertising or informational piece.

Stylesheet

A formatting description of a documents style.

The stylesheet includes formatting specifications, such as the fonts to use for body and heads, color of text, where page numbers are to be placed, and margins.

This description can either be on paper or in a file that can be read by a text formatting program.

Subdirectory

A directory within another directory in a file system.

Subhead

A heading that is placed within the text. It is used to separate sections of text and is generally smaller than the main heading of the page.

Subroutine

A section of coding in a program that performs a given task.

Subscript
  1. Text that is set at half the font height below the baseline and is often in a smaller type size. Ex. H2O.

  2. A symbol or number used to identify an element in an array, when programming.

Substance Weight
  1. Basis weight of a paper

  2. The weight of a ream (500 sheets) of paper that is the standard basic sheet size for that grade.

Substrate
  1. A term used in printing to describe the base material onto which images or text will be reproduced. Base materials include (though are not limited to):
  • Any variety of Paper
  • Parchment
  • Fabrics
  • Plastics
  • Textiles
  • Films
  • Foils
  1. The material or stock that serves as the base onto which another material, chemical or solution is applied.

Materials such as paper, fabrics, plastics, textiles, film, foils and acetate can all be the base substrate that may have ink, adhesive, photosensitive emulsion or a laminated material applied to one or both sides.

Subsurface Printing

A method of printing the underside of a transparent film so that when it is applied to a surface the printing lies between the surface and the film it is printed on.

This protects the printed image from scuffs and scratches.

The image is reverse printed so that once it is applied to a surface, it will be right reading.

Subtitle

A secondary and explanatory title used to explain more about the book.

Subtractive Color

A process of using cyan, magenta, yellow and black pigments placed on top of each other onto a reflective substrate material in order to produce a full color image.

Photography, printing, and painting are all subtractive color processes.

The subtractive primary colors are cyan, magenta and yellow.

Subtractive Color Synthesis

The process by which a color impression is created by filtering out individual frequency ranges from the overall spectrum of visible light.

In color printing this is done by overprinting the inks.

Subtractive Primary Colors

Cyan, Magenta and Yellow

Suede Paper

Paper that has a velour finish.

Sulphite Pulp

Chemical pulp produced by cooking woodchips in a solution of sulphur dioxide and ammonium-, calcium-, sodium- or magnesium-sulphite

Sunlight Resistance

The ability of a material to resist deterioration due to the exposure to sunlight.

Sunned

Refers to condition; the pages or dust jacket is faded from exposure to sunlight.

Supercalendered

An additional papermaking process where the paper runs through a set of alternating steel and fiber covered rollers.

Supercalendering produces a very smooth thin sheet.

Superior

Text that is set at half the font height of the text being used and is set above the baseline.

Often used for numerials in footnotes and equations and in scientific content.

Superscript

Text that is set at half the font height of the text being used and is set above the baseline.

Often used for numerials in footnotes and equations and in scientific content.

Superscript Characters

Text that is set at half the font height of the text being used and is set above the baseline.

Often used for numerials in footnotes and equations and in scientific content.

Supplier

The provider of a product or service. Also referred to as vendor.

Suppressed

A part of a book that was held back after being published; i.e, a chapter that existed in the first printing, does not appear in the second.

It also can describe an entire publication withdrawn from circulation, because of various reasons including political, legal, or perhaps the belated regrets of the author.

Suppression
  1. An electronic process that works on the same principal as spot carbon in business forms.

It prevents selected data from appearing on certain copies on a digital document.

  1. The use of computer matching techniques to eliminate selected names form a mailing list.
Surface Color

A method of the paper of adding color to the surface of the paper.

The color is applied off the paper machine.

Surface Fuzz

The fibers that protrude out from the surface of a paper stock.

Surface Texture

The texture on the surface of the paper, such as smooth, matte, cockle, laid, linen, wove, etc.

Surfing

Navigating or moving rapidly through Web sites.

Surprint

Printing an image over an area that has already been printed.

Swatch

A sample showing a type of paper or ink color.

Swatch Book

A booklet containing samples of paper or ink colors.

Swell

The additional thickness at the binding edge.

Switched Multimegabit Data Service

SMDS

A very high-speed transfer of data offered by the telephone companies.

SWOP

Specifications for Web Offset Publications

A set of guidelines that specify color standards, film densities, screen rulings, reverses, overprinted type, proofing, color bars, and proofing stock for printing web offset publications.

These guidelines have been set up to promote uniform communication throughout the different areas of the publishing process to strive for quality color in web offset publications.

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line

SDSL

A Digital Subscriber Line DSL variant with E1-like data rates (72 to 2320 kbit/s).

It runs over one pair of copper wires, with a maximum range of about 3 kilometers. The main difference between ADSL and SDSL is that SDSL has the same upstream data transfer rate as downstream (symmetrical), whereas “ADSL”/a/adsl always has smaller upstream bandwidth (asymmetrical).

However, unlike ADSL, it can’t co-exist with a conventional voice service on the same pair as it takes over the entire bandwidth.

It is quite expensive and is mainly targetted at small and medium businesses who may host a server on site (eg a Terminal Server) so don’t want to use ADSL, but don’t need the higher performance of a leased line.

SDSL was never properly standardised until Recommendation G.991.2 (ex-G.shdsl) was approved by ITU-T.

SDSL is often confused with G.SHDSL and unfortunately, in Europe G.SHDSL was standardized by ETSI using the name ‘SDSL’.

This ETSI variant is compatible with the ITU-T G.SHDSL standardized regional variant for Europe.

Equipment routing SDSL support is usually proprietary equipment which only speaks to
SDSL equipment from the same vendor, or to SDSL equipment from other vendors that use the same DSL chipset.

Most new installations use G.SHDSL equipment instead of SDSL.

Synchronous Optical Network

SONET

A high-capacity network that provides high speed transmitting of data for fiber optic media.

Syntax

The rules which determine the correct construction of statements in a programming language.

Computers can only understand what you type in your code if you follow all the specific rules for that language.

Each language has its own syntactical set of rules that the computer understands.

System Software

A generic term referring to any computer software which manages and controls the hardware so that application software can perform a task.

It is an essential part of the computer system. An operating system is an obvious example, while an OpenGL or database library are less obvious examples.

System software contrasts with application software, which are programs that help the end-user to perform specific, productive tasks, such as word processing or image manipulation.

If system software is stored on non-volatile storage such as integrated circuits, it is usually termed firmware.


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