Glossary of Printing Terms:I

I Code

A label technology sold by Philips for the identification of objects using transponders that respond to radio waves. These transponders are less than 0.5 millimeters thick, can be applied in stickers measuring up to 2 by 2 centimeters, can store up to 512 bits of data, and use the scanner’s radio waves to obtain the energy they need to function.

IAB

The Internet Architecture Board

The committee charged with oversight of the technical and engineering development of the Internet by the Internet Society (ISOC).

It oversees a number of Task Forces, of which the most important are the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF).

The body which eventually became the IAB was originally formed by the United States Department of Defense’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under the name Internet Configuration Control Board in 1979; it eventually became the Internet Advisory Board in September, 1984, and then the Internet Activities Board in May, 1986 (the name was changed, while keeping the same acronym). It finally became the Internet Architecture Board, under ISOC, in January, 1992, as part of the Internet’s transition from a U.S.-government entity to an international, public entity.

IAB

The Internet Architecture Board

The committee charged with oversight of the technical and engineering development of the Internet by the Internet Society (ISOC).

It oversees a number of Task Forces, of which the most important are the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF).

The body which eventually became the IAB was originally formed by the United States Department of Defense’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under the name Internet Configuration Control Board in 1979; it eventually became the Internet Advisory Board in September, 1984, and then the Internet Activities Board in May, 1986 (the name was changed, while keeping the same acronym). It finally became the Internet Architecture Board, under ISOC, in January, 1992, as part of the Internet’s transition from a U.S.-government entity to an international, public entity.

IAB

The Internet Architecture Board

The committee charged with oversight of the technical and engineering development of the Internet by the Internet Society (ISOC).

It oversees a number of Task Forces, of which the most important are the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF).

The body which eventually became the IAB was originally formed by the United States Department of Defense’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under the name Internet Configuration Control Board in 1979; it eventually became the Internet Advisory Board in September, 1984, and then the Internet Activities Board in May, 1986 (the name was changed, while keeping the same acronym). It finally became the Internet Architecture Board, under ISOC, in January, 1992, as part of the Internet’s transition from a U.S.-government entity to an international, public entity.

IANA

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

The entity that oversees global IP address allocation, DNS root zone management, and other Internet protocol assignments.

It is operated by ICANN

Prior to the establishment of ICANN for this purpose, IANA was administered primarily by Jon Postel at the Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California, under a contract USC/ISI had with the United States Department of Defense, until ICANN was formed to assume the responsibility under a United States Department of Commerce contract.

IAP

Internet Access Provider

A business or organization that provides to consumers access to the Internet and related services.

In the past, most ISPs were run by the phone companies.

Now, ISPs can be started by just about any individual or group with sufficient money and expertise.

In addition to Internet access via various technologies such as dial-up and DSL, they may provide a combination of services including Internet transit, domain name registration and hosting, web hosting, and colocation.

IBC

###

Acronym for Inside Back Cover.

ICANN

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

Headquartered in Marina Del Rey, California, ICANN is a California non-profit corporation that was created on September 18, 1998 in order to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. Government by other organizations, notably IANA.

The tasks of ICANN include managing the assignment of domain names and IP addresses.

To date, much of its work has concerned the introduction of new generic top-level domains. The technical work of ICANN is referred to as the IANA function; the rest of ICANN is mostly concerned with defining policy.

On September 29, 2006, ICANN signed a new agreement with the United States Department of Commerce that is a step forward toward the full management of the Internet’s system of centrally coordinated identifiers through the multi-stakeholder model of consultation that ICANN represents.

ICC

International Color Consortium

An association of manufacturers of prepress products dedicated to promoting color management or device-independent color processing. Fogra oversees the organization.

ICOM

International Council of Museums

The International Council of Museums is an international organization of museums and museum professionals which is committed to the conservation, continuation and communication to society of the world’s natural and cultural heritage, present and future, tangible and intangible.

Created in 1946, ICOM is a non-governmental organization maintaining formal relations with and having a consultative status with UNESCO.

As a non-profit organization, ICOM is financed primarily by membership fees and supported by various governmental and other bodies.

It carries out part of UNESCO’s programme for museums.

Based in Paris, France, the ICOM Headquarters houses both the ICOM Secretariat and the UNESCO-ICOM Museum Information Centre.

ICOM provides the policy basis for the operation of the .museum (“dot-museum”) top-level domain.

Icon

An image, symbol or graphic representation capable of standing alone as a representation of a product or business.

ICT

Information and Communication(s) Technology

In particular, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information.

For that reason, computer professionals are often called IT specialists/ consultants or Business Process Consultants, and the division of a company or university that deals with software technology is often called the IT department.

Also known as Infomation Technology (IT).

ID

Inside diameter.

IDE Alliance

International Digital Enterprise Alliance

Founded in 1966 as the Graphic Communications Association (GCA), this non-profit organization promotes the development of IT standards in the publishing industry and currently has over 300 members.

Idler Rolls

Roller mechanisms on converting machines used to support, smooth or direct the web in its course of travel through a machine. Not driven.

IFC

h3.

Acronym for Inside Front Cover.

IGD

Institut für grafische Datenverarbeitung

Translation: Institute for Computer Graphics in Darmstadt, Germany

Developer of product prototypes (hard and software) and the realization of concepts, models, and solutions for computer graphics.

www.igd.fhg.de

Ilfra

An international association based in Darmstadt with over 3000 members from the publishing industry, the primary objective of which is to promote the exchange of technical information and experience. Ifra coordinates research projects, workgroups, symposia and seminars. The Ifra Expo exhibition devoted to newspaper production is held in October each year.

Illum

Referring to polychrome illustrations. It usually means an illuminated manuscript.

Illuminated

A manuscript or book embellished with decorative elements that are typically hand-painted in rich colors and are sometimes gilded. The elements may include initial letters, designs, and/or pictorial scenes.

Illustrated Wraps

An Illustration printed on a paperback cover.

This decorative practice began in the early 1850s, with the publication of Letters Left at the Pastry-Cook’s by J.S. Mayhew, and was the precursor of the next trend in publishing yellowbacks.

The sensational pictorial paper cover novels of the later 19th and 20th centuries are famous for their lurid, colorful covers.

Also known as Pictorial Paper Cover

Illustration

Refers to any picture, diagram, portrait, or non-text item in a work, which is used to clarify the text or for decoration.

Illustration Printing Paper (Magazine Paper)

Paper made from chemical pulp and, in some cases, a minimal amount of wood pulp. This is a coated stock that is often calendered. It offers opacity similar to that of wood pulp paper, features excellent non-aging properties and does not yellow.

Illustrator

A graphic design and drawing program designed and manufactured by Adobe.

Image Advertising

Advertising designed to make its recipients feel more favorable toward the advertiser by portraying the advertiser in a favorable light.

Image Area (Layout Area)

Refers to the area of a page to be filled with text and/or images. The image area is determined according to aesthetic criteria and the nature of the printed material. The layout of an image area is part of the field of macrotypography.

Image Assembly

The process of stripping negatives or positives together on a flat before platemaking.

Image Control

A component of the Prinect workflow concept designed by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG, which is the world’s only quality assurance system in the print process that measures complete print sheets using spectrophotometric technology.

After comparing the results with the values of the OK sheet, the color deviations that have been identified are fed online to the press in order to adjust the ink zone settings. This method processes a thousand times more information than is possible using print control strips.

Image Cut Out

An image with the background removed.

Image Editing

Software that enables a user to perform retouching or color correction of digitized images obtained by using a scanner, Photo CD, digital photography, or chip art. Adobe Photoshop is a widely used image-editing program.

Image Map

An image map is a single graphic image containing multiple, clickable hyperlinks.

Image Processing Software

Software for editing the content of images that are digitally encoded, that is created using graphics software or read by a scanner). A distinction is made between the processing or editing of layout features (size, location, etc.) and of intrinsic features (color scheme, gray levels, etc.).

Image Swapping

An electronic process which allows desktop publishing computers to work with low-resolution images but automatically replace the images with high-resolution versions when the pages are ready for final pro-cessing at the CEPS.

Imagesetter

Digital output device for creating films for offset-litho printing. Digital files are output in a similar way to normal laser printing, but printed as separations for high-quality reproduction.

Imagesetters can have output resolutions of up to 5000dpi although 12000 dpi is more the norm for mono printing and 24000dpi to 36000 is generally acceptable for basic CMYK color work.

Imitation Leather

A coated fabric, rubber, or plastic composition, or absorbent paper, manufactured to resemble genuine leather.

Also known as Artificial Leather.

Imitation Parchment

Paper made with irregular distribution of fibers.

Impact Printing

Any printing system where microprocessor-controlled hammer impacts against a ribbon and a substrate.

ImpoProof

A dual head, large format printer that is capable of printing simultaneously on both sides of a roll of paper.

Import

To bring a picture or text file into and application ready for editing or design work.

Impose

To arrange the pages of a book or magazine in the correct sequence and making allowance for suitable margins and trims.

Imposetter

In digital imaging, an imagesetter capable of outputting a film flat with 4, 8 or more pages in imposed position.

Imposition

Arrangement of pages in a sequence, which will read consecutively when the printed sheet is folded.

Imposition During Prepress

The proper arrangement of pages to maximize production run efficiency.

Imposition Form

The layout sheet comprising all pages on the press sheet. The number of pages on the individual imposition forms varies according to the total number of pages of the printed product.

Imposition Proof (Layout Proof)

Proof used to review the content and completeness of the various elements of a printing copy. In contrast to a blueprint, this proof is in color, although the colors are not binding. Large-format inkjet printers are mainly used for printing imposition proofs of this kind.

Imposition sheet

Determines the position of the pages on the printed sheet.

imPRESS

A page description language developed by Imagen and supported by over 60 software products including Crystal, TeX, Superpage and AutoCAD. Almost certainly the first commercially available PDL.

Impression

Pressure of type of blanket as it comes in contact with paper.

Impression Cylinder

In printing, the cylinder on a printing press against which the paper picks up the impression from the inked plate in direct printing, or the blanket in offset printing.

Imprimatur

The official approval by the client that printing of the product can begin. The phrases “good to print” or “ready for press” are also used.

Imprint
  1. The information required by law regarding the publisher and printer of printed products or Internet publications.

As a rule, the imprint also contains additional details, such as the name of the editor, the editorial address and a copyright notice.

  1. Refers either to the place of publication or to the publisher. The imprint information is located either at the base of a title page or in a colophon at the back of a book.

The term can also refer to a printed piece from a certain location or period of time; i.e., the university has a collection of 18th century Massachusetts imprints.

Imprinter

An auxiliary printing unit, usually employing rubber letterpress plates; imprints copy on top side of web and permits imprint copy to be changed while press is running at full speed.

Improved Newsprint

Newsprint type of paper made from bleached mechanical pulp or DIP for four-colour printing; different brightness levels

In Print

Books that are currently available for sale from publishers.

In The Round

ITR

Referring to a workflow where the image carriers are imaged and processed in position on sleeves for use in the Flexographic press. ITR image carriers cam be continuous or have a seam (break) in the image.

In-Home Readers

People who read a magazine in their own home

In-House

Functions performed within the company rather than by outside contractors.

In-Line Press

A press coupled to another operation such as sheeting, die-cutting, creasing, etc. A multi-color press in which the color stations are mounted horizontally in a line.

In-Mold Labels

IML

Special type of labels which are pre-applied to plastic bottles during the blow-molding operation.

In-Plant Printer

Department of an agency, business, or association that does printing for the parent organization.

Incentive

Reward for a purchase or performance; as it applies to promotional products, it could be, depending on the response required, an ad specialty, premium or prize.

Included Angle

The included angle is double the cutting angle.

Incubator

The term used to describe various methods of support for new companies to enable them to establish themselves in the marketplace. Professionals providing these services are usually paid in the form of shares in the new company.

Incunabula

A book printed, with moveable type, during the earliest period of printing.

Commonly refers to books published before the year 1501.

Incunabulum/Incunabula

Term derived from Latin for works made using a movable letter technique prior to the 16th century.

It is estimated that between 27,000 and 40,000 works were produced with this method in the 15th century.

Incunabula usually have no title page, and there is often no reference to the printer, or year.

Since it is assumed that early printers also produced their own type, the origin of incunabula can be determined by comparing the type used.

Independent Field Report

Reports researched by an independent field service organization under a contract with a publisher.

InDesign

Software package from Adobe for computer layout and typesetting comparable to QuarkXPress.

Index

An alphabetical listing of names or topics, with the citation of page numbers, to facilitate quick reference to the contents of the work. The index is located at the back in a book. For series and journals, it is usually published after the volume is completed and is usually found in the last issue.

Index Bristol

A relatively thick paper stock; basis size—-25 1/2 × 30 1/2.

Index Holes

See feed slots.

Index Punch

See feed slots.

India Ink

A black ink used for drawing and preparing artwork for reproduction.

India Paper

An extremely thin, yet relatively opaque paper, used to help reduce the bulk of what would otherwise be a book of unwieldy size.

Indicias

Mailing permit imprints that are preprinted on envelopes, mailing cartons, etc.

Industrial Design

Industrial design is an applied art, meaning that function takes precedence over aesthetic appeal.

Of concern however are physical appeal, shape, relationship of details, quality of materials, colors, texture, sound and comfort to the user.

Also to qualify under this definition, the product must be made by an industrial method and not a fine-art studio approach.

Industrial Hygiene

Programs within EHS management systems that are designed to protect employees from
workplace hazards.

Industrial Papers

A term used to denote papers such as janitorial, sanitary or heavy packing papers.

Infeed NIP

A mechanism designed to control the forward travel of the web into the press.

Information and Communication(s) Technology

ICT

In particular, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information.

For that reason, computer professionals are often called IT specialists/ consultants or Business Process Consultants, and the division of a company or university that deals with software technology is often called the IT department.

Also known as Infomation Technology (IT).

Information Page

A static web page that is designed, coded, and written primarily for a target audience but formatted for optimal search engine and directory positioning.

Information Technology

IT

In particular, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information.

For that reason, computer professionals are often called IT specialists/ consultants or Business Process Consultants, and the division of a company or university that deals with software technology is often called the IT department.

Also known as Information and Communication(s) Technology (ICT).

Infrared

The band of light wavelengths too long to be seen by the human eye. Represented by waves that are between 750 and 4 million nanometers.

Infringement

When another party besides the copyright owner reproduces a copyrighted work, in whole or in part, without the copyright owner’s permission.

Ingredients of Paper

Paper is composed of cellulose fibers such as from wood or cotton and additives, such as fillers, dyes and sizing.

Initial

A letter placed at the beginning of a text, which appears larger and/or in a different font. In old handwritten material, initials are characterized by special colors and decorative elements. The first initial can be found in Greek and Copt scripts from the fourth century.

Initial Cap

A capital letter at the beginning of a paragraph that rests on the first baseline and rises above the x-height of the other letters.

Initial Tack

The measure of instant adhesion a pressure sensitive label has when applied to a surface.

Ink Absorption

Extent of ink penetration into paper.

Ink Acceptance

The amount of printing ink absorbed by the paper during printing. It may have an effect on the print quality and must be taken into consideration during preparations for the print run.

Ink Balance

Relationship of the densities and dot gains of process inks to each other and to a standard density of neutral gray

Ink Density

A value measured by densitometers at the point in the spectral range where the ink is primarily absorbed. It is the reflection factor of a sample expressed as a logarithm, and directly related to the film thickness of the ink. See “densitometry”.

Ink Dot Scum

On aluminum plates, a type of oxidation scum characterized by scattered pits that print sharp, dense dots.

Ink Drum

A metal drum, either solid or cored; a part of an inking mechanism; used to break down the ink and transfer it to the form rollers.

Ink Fountain

The device in a printing machine that supplies the block with the printing ink.

Ink Holdout

An important printing paper quality – the ability to keep ink on top of the paper’s surface. An inked image printed on paper with a high degree of ink holdout will dry by oxidation rather than absorption.

Ink Mist

Any threads or filaments that protrude from the main printed letter body of long inks, as seen in newsprint.

Ink Receptive

Having the property of being wet by greasy ink, in preference to water.

Ink Resistance

Resistance to the penetration of the ink vehicle; also called ink hold-out.

Ink Setting

The inertial resistance to flow that occurs to ink as soon as it is printed.

Ink-Jet Labels

Labels designed to run smoothly on ink-jet printers.

Ink, Flexographic

Fast drying fluid inks used in flexographic printing. Flexographic inks can be formulated as water based, solvent based or UV drying formulas.

Inking Mechanism

On a printing press, the ink fountain and all the parts used to meter, transfer, break down, distribute, cool or heat, and supply the ink to the printing members. Also called inking system.

Inkjet Paper

A surface-finished grade of paper designed to quickly absorb the tiny droplets of ink that an inkjet printer sprays in quick succession. It includes properties that prevent ink from running or smearing brown-colored paper (also called sulfate paper) consisting at least 90% of virgin, generally unbleached sulfate pulp and known for its outstanding strength and durability.

Inkjet Printing

A printing process in which minute drops of ink are applied to the surface to be printed by means of a jet that operates with piezoelectric or thermal technology. Color inkjet printers now work with up to six colors and well over a hundred individual jets. Nowadays, depending on the process, they are capable of achieving the same results as high-quality four-color printing.

Inkometer

A device used to measure the tack of ink.

Inline Finishing

Presses that incorporate equipment on the same production line that handles part of the bindery.

Inline Processing

The term used for print processes that take place directly on the press or the modules required for that particular stage of production. Inline processing can include coating, folding, stitching or quality control.

Inner Forme

An imposition containing the pages, which fall on the inside of a printed sheet in sheet work the reverse of the outer forme.

Inscribed Copy

A book in which a written inscription has been made by the author, to a specified person.

Inscription By Previous Owner

A written name, note, phrase, or comment made in a book.

Unless indicated otherwise, the inscription is not written by the author

Insert

A printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication or another printed piece.

Insertion Order

An order form used by advertising agencies and ad sales reps to fulfill an advertiser’s request to place an ad in a specific issue or series of issues of a publication.

Insoluble

Incapable of being dissolved in a liquid.

Intaglio

The process of incising a design beneath the surface of hard metal or stone. Plates are inked only in the etched depressions on the plates and then the plate surface is wiped clean. The ink is then transferred onto the paper through an etching press. The printing is done with a plate bearing an image in intaglio and includes all metal-plate etching and engraving processes. The reverse of this process is known as relief printing.

Intaglio Rainbow Printing

A kind of artistic engraving; a general term for the drawing techniques that result in gravure plates: copperplate engraving, steel-plate engraving, engraving, etc. Rainbow or iris printing – a form of multicolor printing from a single printing plate that is inked in different colors in different areas for this purpose originates from art printing, where it was developed and applied in conjunction with intaglio techniques.

Integral Proof

Color proof of separation negatives exposed in register on one piece of proofing paper.

Integral Proof

A proof made by exposing each of the four-color separations to an emulsion layer of primary colors. These emulsion sheets are stacked in register with a white sheet of paper in the background. Types of integral proofs are cromalin, matchprint, ektaflex, and spactraproof.

Integrated Publishing

The digital linking of all production stages in the print process, including electronic job input, prepress, press, postpress and preparation for dispatch. The International Cooperation for Integration of Processes in Prepress, Press and Postpress (CIP4), with over 100 member companies, strives to promote the integration of such computer-assisted processes within the graphic arts industry.

Integration

Refers to the free flow of data from one corporate division to another without having to pass through time-consuming and trouble-prone interfaces. Integration also permits companies to keep the same data available from various locations.

Integrity

A term used to describe the quality of the paper surface (finish).

Intensity

The extreme strength, degree or amount of ink.

Interactive

Any type of media that allows the user to influence and react to it.

Interface

Noun: the connection between two applications or hardware devices, which facilitates data exchange. An interface can include hardware, software and can take place using similar or different categories of data. Verb: to make an appropriate physical connection between two pieces of hardware so that the equipment can communicate or work together effectively.

This can be the plug or cable that links the PC to the modem, or software that connects text with tables, or even the keyboard, which acts as an interface between computer and user.

Interim Statement

A circulation statement of a publisher made quarterly to the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC). An interim statement can be made at any time but is usually issued when there is a major change to publications; such as two periodicals merging.

Interlace

Storing partial data from a single graphic image in multiple sequences. The purpose of interlacing is to have a partial image initially appear on screen rather than having to wait for the image to appear in its entirety. With interlacing, equally spaced sets of lines from the original image are stored together, and these sets appear one on top of the other in sequence.

Interleaved Barcode

A bar code in which characters are paired using bars to represent the first character and spaces to represent the second.

Interleaves (Slip Sheets)

Paper inserted between sheets as they come off the printing press to prevent transfer of wet ink from one to the other. Also, accessory sheets between parts in a form.

Interline freight

Freight moving from origin to destination over the Freight lines of two or more transportation carriers.

Intermediate Cut

A stage in the postpress process, in which the signatures are divided into parts and a strip of material is cut out. This step is necessary with bled-off printed areas or images.

Internal Drum Exposure

A process by which the media to be exposed is drawn completely into a drum and fixed by a vacuum. The format is defined by the size of the drum and the writing head on the exposing laser which is centered on a spindle located in the drum. This laser exposes by constantly rotating and traversing the film or plate line by line.

International Council of Museums

ICOM

The International Council of Museums is an international organization of museums and museum professionals which is committed to the conservation, continuation and communication to society of the world’s natural and cultural heritage, present and future, tangible and intangible.

Created in 1946, ICOM is a non-governmental organization maintaining formal relations with and having a consultative status with UNESCO.

As a non-profit organization, ICOM is financed primarily by membership fees and supported by various governmental and other bodies.

It carries out part of UNESCO’s programme for museums.

Based in Paris, France, the ICOM Headquarters houses both the ICOM Secretariat and the UNESCO-ICOM Museum Information Centre.

ICOM provides the policy basis for the operation of the .museum (“dot-museum”) top-level domain.

International Edition

Usually refers to textbooks. These books are lower-priced editions of the original, and have a statement on the cover that they are only for sale in certain countries. The content of the international edition of a textbook is typically identical to that of the U.S. edition, but they sometimes have less expensive covers or binding, are printed on less expensive paper and/or in black and white instead of in color.

International Publishers Association

An organisation representing the publishing industry worldwide.

International Standard Serials Number

ISSN

The ISSN is a code used on catalogues, databases or commercial transactions each time serial publications are involved.

In order to fulfil its goal in an efficient way, the ISSN, as any standardized international code, must be universally used.

It is thus available for all partners concerned, at each stage of the information chain.

ISSN

Internegative.

Negative made from a transparency for the purpose of making photographic prints.

Internet

The collection of networks that communicate via TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) throughout the world. Also called the Net.

Internet Access Provider

IAP

A business or organization that provides to consumers access to the Internet and related services.

In the past, most ISPs were run by the phone companies.

Now, ISPs can be started by just about any individual or group with sufficient money and expertise.

In addition to Internet access via various technologies such as dial-up and DSL, they may provide a combination of services including Internet transit, domain name registration and hosting, web hosting, and colocation.

Internet Architecture Board

IAB

The committee charged with oversight of the technical and engineering development of the Internet by the Internet Society (ISOC).

It oversees a number of Task Forces, of which the most important are the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF).

The body which eventually became the IAB was originally formed by the United States Department of Defense’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under the name Internet Configuration Control Board in 1979; it eventually became the Internet Advisory Board in September, 1984, and then the Internet Activities Board in May, 1986 (the name was changed, while keeping the same acronym). It finally became the Internet Architecture Board, under ISOC, in January, 1992, as part of the Internet’s transition from a U.S.-government entity to an international, public entity.

Internet Service Provider

ISP

A business or organization that provides to consumers access to the Internet and related services.

In the past, most ISPs were run by the phone companies.

Now, ISPs can be started by just about any individual or group with sufficient money and expertise.

In addition to Internet access via various technologies such as dial-up and DSL, they may provide a combination of services including Internet transit, domain name registration and hosting, web hosting, and colocation.

Interpolation

A mathematical process to determine intermediate values within regularly structured series of numbers. Various methods are used for this purpose, depending on the nature of the series. In image editing, pixels can be interpolated in order to increase the resolution beyond the physical capacity of an input device.

Interpress

Xerox Corporation’s page description language which was the first such product to be implemented. At present the language still has to be adopted commercially by a third party.

Interpreter

A device usually referred to as an RIP that converts page description into a raster or vector output format. Other functions include assisting in printer to computer communications and driver and print management functions. The interpreter enables all input and output functions that are necessary for output on the printer.

Interspersed Aspect Ratio

A basic requirement of certified photofinishers and certified photofinishing equipment; specifies the three system print formats – C, H and P – that users select during picture-taking must be available at photofinishing.

See also Aspect Ratio, “C”-format, “H”-format and “P”-format.

Interstitial

An interstitial is a web advertisement that appears in a separate browser window, other than the target web page.

Invoice

A detailed list of goods shipped or services rendered, with an account of all costs; an itemized bill.

Inxwell

Revolutionary technology created and patented by Mohawk Paper Mills. Exclusive chemical technology produces text and cover papers with the classic uncoated feel, but with the added advantages of superior ink holdout, lower dot gain, and significantly increased opacity. Inxwell papers are available in the Mohawk Options and Navajo products, and are ideal for both offset and digital printing.

Ionizers

Tool used to eliminate static. Neutralizes static charges by the use of blowing ionized air over the charged surface. Static charge is responsible for the attraction of contaminants (dust, dirt).

IP Address

Internet Protocol Address

A unique address that devices use in order to identify and communicate with each other on a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol standard (IP) in simpler terms, a computer address.

Any participating network device-including routers, computers, time-servers, printers, Internet fax machines, and some telephones can have their own unique address.
Also, many people can find personal information through IP addresses.

An IP address can also be thought of as the equivalent of a street address or a phone number (compare: VoIP (voice over (the) internet protocol)) for a computer or other network device on the Internet.

Just as each street address and phone number uniquely identifies a building or telephone, an IP address can uniquely identify a specific computer or other network device on a network.

IP addresses are managed and created by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

IANA generally allocates super-blocks to Regional Internet Registries, who in turn allocate smaller blocks to Internet service providers and enterprises.

IQ Paper

A kind of sticker used to identify products and manufactured by X-ident GmbH of Düren. The labels are made of paper or plastic foil and, depending on the type, contain a transponder from the Philips® I-code series or the Tag-It series from Texas Instruments. The size of the labels varies from between 5.5 by 10.5 centimeters to 10 by 15 centimeters. The stickers are available on rolls and can be printed using a special printer, which can also apply data for their application.

IR Coating

Liquid laminate coating bonded and cured with infrared light.

Iridescent Paper

Text that is used to denote emphasis by slanting the type body forward.

Iris print

An type of inkjet print printed from an Iris printer.

Iron Gallnut Ink

A very stable ink made from gallnut acid (also called tannin) and known since antiquity. Its name comes from the oak apple, which served as a source of tannin, and was used up until the dawn of chemical pigments in the recent past for all kinds of printed materials.

Irrational Screening

Refers to randomly arranged, incorrectly read pixel values that usually result from electrical interference or device instability.

ISBN

The International Standard Book Number

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a 10-digit number that uniquely identifies books and book-like products published internationally.

The purpose of the ISBN is to establish and identify one title or edition of a title from one specific publisher and is unique to that edition, allowing for more efficient marketing of products by booksellers, libraries, universities, wholesalers and distributors.

Every ISBN consists of ten digits and whenever it is printed it is preceded by the letters ISBN. The ten-digit number is divided into four parts of variable length, each part separated by a hyphen.

There are over 160 ISBN Agencies worldwide, and each ISBN Agency is appointed as the exclusive agent responsible for assigning ISBNs to publishers residing in their country or geographic territory. The United States ISBN Agency is the only source authorized to assign ISBNs to publishers supplying an address in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam and Puerto Rico and its database establishes the publisher of record associated with each prefix.

ISBN

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

A method for the uniform digital transmission of voice and data in local telephone networks, supplying users with more functions than a conventional, analog connection offers. In Europe, a normal ISDN connection has two data channels with a transmission capacity of 64 kbit/s each and a control channel with 16 kbit/s. If required, more channels can be connected and also bundled to obtain higher transmission capacities.

ISO

The International Organization for Standardization

An international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies.

Founded on February 23, 1947, the organization produces world-wide industrial and commercial standards, the so-called ISO standards.

While the ISO defines itself as a non-governmental organization (NGO), its ability to set standards which often become law through treaties or national standards makes it more powerful than most NGOs, and in practice it acts as a consortium with strong links to governments.

The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO’s work results in international agreements which are published as International Standards.

Established standards for paper sizes based on the metric system (millimeters).
The standards have been grouped into three different series of requirements.

The “A-series” is for general printing.

ISO

ISO 14000

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A series of international standards that rely on changes in organizational commitment, focus and behavior (rather than on government coercion) to provide the basis and key to the realization of strategic environmental management.

ISO Brightness, Diffuse Blue Reflectance Factor

Intrinsic reflectance factor at an effective wavelength of 457 nm; measure for the brightness of paper

ISO Paper Sizes

The International Organization for Standardization Paper Sizes

European standard paper size standard. The most common of which is the ‘A’ series.

The aspect ratio of ISO paper sheets is 1 to 1.414.

This means that if you cut a sheet into halves they will be the same proportion as the original. In other words a sheet of A3, when cut in half, will give two sheets of A4.

There are are also B and C size papers and the larger RA and SRA paper sizes, which are allow printers to print oversize sheets that can be trimmed to ‘A’ size for commercial use.

ISO Speed

The emulsion speed (sensitivity) of the film as determined by the standards of the International Standards Organization. In these standards, both arithmetic (ASA) and logarithmic (DIN) speed values are expressed in a single ISO term. For example, a film with a speed of ISO 100/21 would have a speed of ASA 100 or 21 DIN.

ISO9000/1/2/3/4

International quality standard for industry defining the structure of an organisation, its obligations and authorisations, the structure of production and its ability to manufacture products or to produce services at a continuous quality level (in conformity with the standard).

ISP

Internet Service Provider

A business or organization that provides to consumers access to the Internet and related services.

In the past, most ISPs were run by the phone companies.

Now, ISPs can be started by just about any individual or group with sufficient money and expertise.

In addition to Internet access via various technologies such as dial-up and DSL, they may provide a combination of services including Internet transit, domain name registration and hosting, web hosting, and colocation.

ISSN

International Standard Serials Number

The ISSN is a code used on catalogues, databases or commercial transactions each time serial publications are involved.

In order to fulfil its goal in an efficient way, the ISSN, as any standardized international code, must be universally used.

It is thus available for all partners concerned, at each stage of the information chain.

ISSN

Issue

A portion of the printing of an edition that has a different format, binding, or paper. An issue, of an edition, is done intentionally by the publisher and can contain various states.

Issue Date

The date a magazine is distributed to readers, usually before the cover date.

Issue Life

How long it takes for a reader to read a magazine as defined by some predetermined measure.

IT

Information Technology

In particular, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information.

For that reason, computer professionals are often called IT specialists/ consultants or Business Process Consultants, and the division of a company or university that deals with software technology is often called the IT department.

Also known as Information and Communication(s) Technology (ICT).

IT-8 Color Reference Target

An industry standard color reference tool used to calibrate input and output devices.

Italic

Type with sloping letters.

Ivory Board

A smooth high white board used for business cards etc.

IX Information Exchange

The ability of Advanced Photo System film to communicate with devices, and devices to communicate with film; can be accomplished optically or magnetically using a thin magnetic layer on the film that records digital data. See also Transparent magnetic layer.

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