Glossary of Printing Terms:V

V-fold

A V-fold has one fold which creates two panels.

Vacuum Frame

In platemaking and film making, it is a device that draws materials tightly together so that when exposure takes place only the proper amount of light gets to the exposed material.

Validation

A procedure in variable information processing that occurs prior to output, which is undertaken to insure that the digital information to be processed is correctly configured so the output matches the desired results.

Some of the various validations may involve the checking of the authored text and the data feeds associated with the text to remove invalid data feeds such as duplicate names, missing addresses or improper zip coding.

Checks to insure that photo placement and size remain consistent or checking to make sure the appearance of the job meets the quality of output desired.

Value

In color theory, one of the three attributes of color, the other two being hue and saturation.

Brightness describes differences in the amount of light reflected from or transmitted through an image regardless of its hue and saturation.

Value is a difficult word to use in marking color correction. People use it for both the addition and subtraction of color.

Correctly used, it refers to the amount of light (paper white) apparent in an area.

Value Added Network

VAN

A data communications carrier that offers basic and special services for applications such as electronic commerce. and messaging.

VAN

Value Added Network

A data communications carrier that offers basic and special services for applications such as electronic commerce. and messaging.

Variable Data

Dynamic data that is captured on a computer which changes and is specific for each person or situation.

When used in publishing, variable data is most often placed in designated cells to be combined with a pre-designed or static digital format.

It is then output as a digital or paper document which is personalized with information specific to the individual but surrounded by content that remains the same on all documents.

As an example, variable data is used to populate insurance policies and 401K accounts for employees.

The documents contain a base format of content about the organization or provider of the program and dynamic content or data pertaining to employee’’s benefits and program selections.

Digital presses linked to computer systems can receive variable data specific to each person.

The variable data is combined with the static data or base format of the document.

The format remains the same for each document while the variable data changes as it is delivered from the computer and sent into the press print engines where it is output to print with the base format of the doucment.

Variable Imaging

A printing process where the information, such as name, addresses, personalized messages and illustrations, can change from sheet to sheet as it is running through the press or printer.

The press and software being used to drive the imaging must both be capable of variable imaging for this to work.

Variable Information

Dynamic data that is captured on a computer which changes and is specific for each person or situation.

When used in publishing, variable data is most often placed in designated cells to be combined with a pre-designed or static digital format.

It is then output as a digital or paper document which is personalized with information specific to the individual but surrounded by content that remains the same on all documents.

As an example, variable data is used to populate insurance policies and 401K accounts for employees.

The documents contain a base format of content about the organization or provider of the program and dynamic content or data pertaining to employee’’s benefits and program selections.

Digital presses linked to computer systems can receive variable data specific to each person.

The variable data is combined with the static data or base format of the document.

The format remains the same for each document while the variable data changes as it is delivered from the computer and sent into the press print engines where it is output to print with the base format of the doucment.

Variable-Contrast Paper

Photographic paper that provides different grades of contrast when exposed through special filters.

Variant

Refers to a minor difference between printings, usually on the title page or on the endpapers.

Varnish

A thin, liquid protective coating, either matte or glossy, that is applied to the product.

It adds protection and enhances the appearance of the product.

It can be applied as an all over coating or it can be applied as a spot coating.

A clear coating that can be processed like an ink in offset and other presses.

It has a similar composition to ink, but lacks color pigment.

VBScript

Visual Basic Scripting Edition

An Active Scripting language interpreted via Microsoft’s Windows Script Host.

The language’s syntax reflects its pedigree as a variation of Microsoft’s Visual Basic programming language.

It has initially gained support from Windows administrators seeking an automation tool more powerful than the batch language first developed in the late 1970s.

VBScript is interpreted by a script engine vbscript.dll, which can be invoked by ASP engine asp.dll in a web environment, wscript.exe in a Windows GUI environment, and cscript.exe in a command-line environment.

When VBScript source code is contained in stand-alone files, they have the file extension .vbs.

When employed in Microsoft Internet Explorer, VBScript is very similar in function to JavaScript – it processes code embedded in HTML.

VBScript can also be used to create stand-alone HTML applications (file extension .hta) which require Internet Explorer 5 or later to run.

Web developers may prefer to use JavaScript instead for better compatibility with web browsers other than Internet Explorer.

Vector

A line segment specified by its start and end point.

Vector Graphics

Graphics and pictures represented by lines and curves rather than using dot or pixels as use on bitmapped or raster images.

Vectors depict an image on the basis of its geometric properties.

Vehicle

The liquid material in printing ink that carries the pigment and allows the ink to be applied to the paper.

Vellum
  1. A type of finish used on book paper that gives the paper a smooth creamy finish.

  2. A fine parchment made from calfskin, lambskin, not tanned but treated with chemicals to make it suitable for writing and printing on and for binding.

Can also refer to heavy off-white fine-quality paper resembling this parchment.

Vellum Paper

Paper with a vellum finish. Its finish is relatively absorbent, making a good printing surface.

VeloBinding

A method of binding which uses a plastic strip containing spikes that are inserted into holes punched into the pages to be bound.

A punch machine, specially designed for this purpose, punches a series of holes on the front side of the pages for the spikes to extend through and protrude out the other side of the hole.

A second plastic strip is then mated with the protuding spikes on the back side of the pages and is then inserted into a binding machine which seals the binding by melting the plastic and trimming off the excess spike lengths.

Once bound, the pages become secure and cannot be removed or added without damaging the book.

Vendor

The provider of a product or service. Also referred to as supplier.

VeriSign

VeriSign, Inc.

An American company based in Mountain View, California that operates a diverse array of network infrastructure, including two of the Internet’s thirteen root nameservers, the generic top-level domains for .com and .net, one of the largest SS7 signaling networks in North America, and the RFID directory for EPCGlobal.

VeriSign also provides a variety of security and telecom services ranging from digital certificates, payments processing, and managed firewalls to mobile call roaming, toll-free call database queries and downloadable digital content for mobile devices.

The company groups all of these functions under the banner of ‘intelligent infrastructure’ services.

VeriSign

Veronica

Software that searches for filenames on gopher servers.

It is a database that is constantly being updated with the names of menu items on thousands of gopher servers.

Versioning

The creation of more than one version of a document. Most often this procedure is employed in variable information processing when a direct marketing campaign involves the use of several different base designs of an informational booklet or folder.

A version or format is selected, depending on the purpose, and combined with the variable information in order to output a document that becomes more closely allied with the target audience and inteneded purpose.

Verso

The back of the leaf; the page that lies to the left in an open book.

Versos are the left hand page or the even-numbered pages.

Also known as Verso Page.

Verso Page

The back of the leaf; the page that lies to the left in an open book.

Versos are the even-numbered pages.

Also known as Verso.

Versos Blank

French for “outside of the text,” and the term usually refers to plates, without printing on the reverse sides.

The plates may be tipped in to paper of a different stock from that of the text.

Also see Hors Texte.

Vertical Perf

Perforation that runs down the depth of the sheet, and is perpendicular to the lines of text.

Video Conferencing

Holding a conference between two or more people in different locations using a computer network to transmit audio and video data.

Video Noise

More commonly called “luminence signal-to-noise ratio.”

This is a measure of how pure the video signal is (the monochrome or black-and-white portion of the picture).

Tape with good luminence signal-to-noise ratios has a sharper, clearer image.

This property has even greater importance on multiple generation copies.

Video Out Cable NTSC

An image transfer device or computer connection used primarily for preview purposes.

A camera may have an analog video output terminal which connects to a computer or television monitor allowing images to be viewed, inspected, and discarded to make room for more images in the camera.

Video Out Cable PAL

An image transfer device or computer connection used primarily for preview purposes.

A camera may have an analog video output terminal which connects to a computer or television monitor allowing images to be viewed, inspected, and discarded to make room for more images in the camera.

Viewer

A utility program used when receiving a file that is not supported on a client’’s workstation. For example, a user receiving a PostScript file must use a viewer to be able to read the file’’s content.

Viewfinder

A “through the lens” traditional means of viewing the subject matter to be photographed.

Vignette

When the background of an image gradually fades away and blends into the unprinted paper.

Vignetting

A fall-off in brightness at the edges of an image, slide, or print.

Can be caused by poor lens design, using a lens hood not matched to the lens, or attaching too many filters to the front of the lens.

Vinyl

A film that is highly durable and resistant to chemicals and moisture.

It is high in conformability Excellent for outdoor use.

Virgin Paper

Paper manufactured from new pulp or cotton. Does not contain any recycled material.

Virtual Reality Markup Language

VRML

A computer programming modeling language for use in rendering 3-D simulated “worlds” on Web sites through a VRML-capable Web browser.

Virus

A software program that replicates itself and infects a computer.

It causes the destruction of files and programs on a computer system.

Viscosity

The degree to which ink resists flow when it is under force, such as in the roller train of a printing press.

If ink does not flow easily, it has a high viscosity, and if it flows easily, its viscosity is low.

Visible Infared Ink

Infrared visible inks are available in readable and disappearing ink.

When printed they can look the same but when viewed under infrared light, one will be readable and one will disappear.

Visible Security Fibers

Visible fibers are added to the paper when it is manufactured.

They are placed randomly on the paper, on both the front and back side.

They can be different colors, densities and lengths.

The fibers can be easily seen without the use of any special equipment.

Visible Spectrum

The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

Humans can only detect red, green and blue.

All colors visible to the human eye are a combination of these colors.

Void Pantograph

A pantograph screen that has the word “VOID” hidden in it, created by using special screens and background designs.

When photocopied by a color copier, the word “VOID” appears on the copied document.

A document with a void pantograph is more difficult to duplicate than one with a standard pantograph.

Voids

Light areas in the bars of a bar code symbol and in the numbers of MICR encoding which are generally the result of problems encountered while being printed.

The voids areas cause problems when the scanners try to read the numbers.

Volume

A book or periodical that is part of a series or a set.

The volume notation can be a number, letter, or a similar form.

Vortal

A term used to describe a web site which acts as a vertical portal or a central gathering point to locate industry specific information for automotive, steel, financial, medical industries, etc.

VRML

Virtual Reality Markup Language

A computer programming modeling language for use in rendering 3-D simulated “worlds” on Web sites through a VRML-capable Web browser.


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