Glossary of Printing Terms:P

P.S.1

P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center

P.S.1 was founded in 1971 by Alanna Heiss as The Institute of Art and Urban Resources Inc., and was primarily dedicated to the transformation of abandoned and underutilized buildings in New York City into exhibition, performance, and studio spaces for artists.

Today, P.S.1 operates two internationally acclaimed spaces for contemporary art: P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, the huge, hundred-room museum in Long Island City, and the legendary Clocktower Gallery in Lower Manhattan, which is perched on the 13th floor of an old city building, contains 6 production studios and houses the headquarters of Art Radio WPS1.org broadcasting.

P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, an affiliate of The Museum of Modern Art, is one of the oldest and largest non-profit arts centers in the United States solely devoted to contemporary art.

Recognized as a defining force of the alternative space movement, P.S.1 stands out from other major arts institutions through its cutting-edge approach to exhibitions and direct involvement of artists within a scholarly framework. P.S.1 acts as an intermediary between artist and audience.

Functioning as a living and active meeting place for the general public, P.S.1 is a catalyst for ideas, discourses and new trends in contemporary art.

Packet

A single unit of data being sent over a data communications network. The packet also contains the destination address along with the data.

Packet Filtering

The permitting of only authorized IP packets through a server or firewall to prevent unauthorized access of information.

Packet Switching

Transmission of a message where the message is divided into fixed-length packets rather than being sent as a whole. This method is used to increase transmission speed.

Pad Printing

An indirect gravure process in which a flexible (often semi-spherical) pad of silicon rubber is used as a medium for transferring the ink from the plate to the surface to be printed./r/n/r/nThis method can be used to print a great diversity of irregularly shaped objects.

Padding

Joining a specific number of individual sheets or forms together by applying a padding compound along one side of the stack.

Each individual stack generally has a chipboard backer to provide stability to the pad.

Padlock Icon

This icon, printed on the face of a document, indicates that two or more security features have been used.

An explanation of the features used are printed on the back of the document in a padlock icon box.

Padlock Icon Box

An area printed on the back of a document that explains the security features that have been used.

Page

In publications it is one side of a leaf. In Web terms it is a single HTML content fil

Page Assembly

The positioning of the finished pages on the imposition sheet as determined using imposition software.

Page Buffering

The spooling of all the pages of a file before the file starts to print. Once the entire file is spooled it will print the entire file.

Page Description Language

A code or programming language used to specify all elements of the layout of a printed page including fonts, graphic elements and images, in such a way that an interpreter can carry out the necessary printer and control commands in an output device.

Page Format

The preset arrangement of page items such as headers, columns, paragraphs and fields.

Page Impression

The number of times a Web page is requested from a server./r/n/r/nThis is the preferred counting method for traffic measurement (instead of hits) because it only counts documents, not individual files./r/n/r/nA single HTML page is counted as one page impression.

Page Makeup

The putting together of all the elements needed to make up a page.

Page Request

The number of times a Web page is requested from a server./r/n/r/nThis is the preferred counting method for traffic measurement (instead of hits) because it only counts documents, not individual files./r/n/r/nA single HTML page is counted as one page impression.

Page View

The number of times a Web page is requested from a server./r/n/r/nThis is the preferred counting method for traffic measurement (instead of hits) because it only counts documents, not individual files./r/n/r/nA single HTML page is counted as one page impression.

PageMaker

A page layout software created by Adobe, which provides tools to compose text and graphics for documents to be reproduced and output to print.

Pages Per Inch

The number of pages in a one inch stack of paper.

Pages Per Minute

PPM

Pagination
  1. The process of dividing text blocks and assembling with other page elements to create pages.

  2. The assigning of numbers to the pages in a document; the division of a document into pages

  3. The sequence of the numbered pages in a Book.

Paint

Graphics software programs that handles images as groups of individual dots or picture elements (pixels) rather than as composed of shapes.

PAL

Video Out Cable

An image transfer device or computer connection used primarily for preview purposes.

A camera may have an analog video output terminal which connects to a computer or television monitor allowing images to be viewed, inspected, and discarded to make room for more images in the camera.

Palette
  1. A selection of colors available to use by a graphics program or an application program.

  2. A graphical user interface in the form of a small window that “holds” tools, colors, patterns, etc. for easy acess.

Pallet

A platform made of wood, plastic or various materials. Products are stacked and stored on them and they are used to transport items by the use of a forklift or pallet jack.

Also called skid

Palo Alto Research Center

PARC

Organization established in 1970 by the Xerox Corporation that has had a decisive influence on the development of computer technology through the present.

Among other achievements, the research institute developed the graphic user interface used on Macintosh and Windows computers, the first commercially available computer mouse, Ethernet network technology, client server architecture, object-oriented programming and the laser printer.

Pamphlet

A small work that is less than book-length, has paper wraps, and typically has a staple binding. Also known as brochure.

Pan

Panchromatic

Designation of films that record all colors in tones of about the same relative brightness as the human eye sees in the original scene, sensitive to all visible wave-lengths.

Panchromatic

Pan

Designation of films that record all colors in tones of about the same relative brightness as the human eye sees in the original scene, sensitive to all visible wave-lengths.

Panchromatic Film

Film that is sensitive to all colors of light.

Pander File

The master file of names of people who no longer want to receive direct mail. Most mailing list service bureaus possess this master file.

Panel

One side of one section of a folded brochure or mailer.

Each folded section has a front and back panel.

Pannelled

Ruled lines forming a square border or frame on a binding, which is done in gilt or blind.

Also known as compartments.

Panning

Moving the camera so that the image of a moving object remains in the same relative position in the viewfinder as you take a picture.

Panorama

A broad view, usually scenic.

Panoramic

A broad view, usually scenic.

Pantograph Screen

A screen that is printed in the background of a document. It is usually printed in a lighter color of ink and made up of a design that is hard to copy or scan.

The main purpose of the pantograph is to help make the document hard to duplicate by someone trying to forge or alter the document.

Pantone Colors

Colors based on a system used worldwide that the Pantone print shop (New Jersey) introduced for the graphic arts industry in 1963./r/n The system is based on 512 reference color tones which are mixed from eight basic colors, black and white and are printed on coated and uncoated paper.

Today, there are over 1,100 Pantone colors available on a broad range of papers.

Pantone has also published color systems for textiles, plastics, paints, film and video.

Pantone Matching System

A registered name for an ink color matching system used to compare, match and identify specific colors.

Paper Boards

A binding made of stiff cardboard that is covered in paper.

Paper Grade

The quality of paper as determined by the ingredients of the stock such as wood or cotton fiber and the method of manufacturing.

All papers fit into a group or type of paper which is its grade.

Paper Grain

The direction in which the fibers line up during the manufacturing process. It is easier to fold, bend, or tear the paper along the same direction of the fibers.

Cut sheet laser printers generally use long grain paper in which the grain runs parallel to the long side of the paper, resulting in better performance through the laser printer.

Paper Manufacturer

A company that makes paper.

They generally make paper in web rolls, sheets and cut sizes.

The paper is sold to paper merchants and printers.

Paper Merchant

A distributor that buys paper from the paper manufacturer and resells it to the paper buyer.

They generally handle many types of paper and are knowledgeable about them so that they can advise the buyer on what will best fit their need

Paper Plates

A plate used for analog and digital offset printing produced from a cellulose material.

The plates are used for short runs on smaller printing equipment and use a toner-based technology for imaging.

Paper Sizes

US standard sizes include the following:

A (8.5” x 11”), B (11” x 17”), C (17” x 22”), D (22” x 34”), E (34” x 44”), executive (7.25” x 10.5”), and legal (8.5” x 14”). ’’A’’ size is also referred to as ’’letter’’, and ’’B’’ size is referred to as ’’tabloid’’ or ’’l

  1. International Standard A-series sizes include the following:

A0 (1189 × 841 mm), A1 (841 × 594 mm), A2 (549 . 420 mm), A3 (420 × 297 mm), A4 (297 × 210 mm), A5 (210 × 148 mm), A6 (148 × 74 mm)

Paper Wraps

Paper covers of a book.

The term is sometimes used interchangeably with paperback.

Paperback

A book with a paper cover.

Sir Allen Lane, founder of Penguin books, was credited with inventing the modern paperback when he published Ariel by Andre Maurois with a paper cover in 1936.

Also known as wrappers.

Paperboard

A paper product with a grammage that is higher than paper, but lower than cardboard.

A distinction is made between single-layer and multilayer board. In the U.S., paperboard is often called “cover paper”.

Paperbound

A book having a paper cover versus a hard cover.

Papyrus

A durable writing material in roll, sheet or book form made from a giant sedge, Cyperus papyrus.

To produce papyrus, the pith of the plant is sliced into strips that are laid out in a row with the edges slightly overlapping.

Another row is then laid crosswire on top of the first. Next, the two layers are moistened with water and pounded into a sheet of writing material, smoothed and then dried.

Papyrus was used as a writing material by the Egyptians since the beginning of the third century B.C. Beginning in the second century A.D.

It was produced in Egypt in large quantities and transported throughout the ancient world.

In time papyrus was replaced by parchment, which was in turn was replaced by paper.

Paragraph Format

Layout instruction and print command that determines text alignment, margin width and spacing.

Parallax

With a lens-shutter camera, parallax is the difference between what the viewfinder sees and what the camera records, especially at close distances.

This is caused by the separation between the viewfinder and the picture-taking lens.

There is no parallax with single-lens-reflex cameras because when you look through the viewfinder, you are viewing the subject through the picture-taking lens.

Parallel Cable

A common computer connecting device which enables images or data to be transmitted in multiple bits (8 bits per time) rather than single bits one at a time.

A faster method than serial cables for transferring images. Most often used to connect printers, external storage devices, and card readers to the computer.

Parallel Center Fold

A folding technique in which the product is creased in the middle in order to halve the respective length in every pocket of the buckle folder.

The page is folded in half and then folded in half again in the same direction.

Parallel Cut

A cut performed by setting the saddle (material stop) parallel to the cutting line.

Parallel Fold

A fold that runs parallel to another fold or a particular edge.

Parallel Printer

A printer that has a parallel port connection. A parallel port uses a 25-pin connectio

PARC

Palo Alto Research Center

Organization established in 1970 by the Xerox Corporation that has had a decisive influence on the development of computer technology through the present.

Among other achievements, the research institute developed the graphic user interface used on Macintosh and Windows computers, the first commercially available computer mouse, Ethernet network technology, client server architecture, object-oriented programming and the laser printer.

Parchment

A stiff material made of animal skin that is used for printing, writing, bindings, legal documents and manuscripts.

Material that is made of paper but looks and feels similar to the skin material can also be called parchment.

Parchment Finish

A paper finish that has an old or antique appearance. Parchment is very durable and grease resistant.

Parchment Paper

Paper with a parchment finish.

Parchment is used on documents such as diplomas and other certificates. It gives the document a look of importance.

Parent Size

The full size of a sheet before any cutting or trimming is done.

Parse

Dividing a programming command into small components to translate its meaning.

Part

One page or ply of a multiple part form.

Part Issues

Novels that are published in separate installments, typically in a magazine or journal.

Works of many popular writers of the 19th century, such as Charles Dickens, were published in parts.

Partial Metering

Light is measured in a small circular area around the center of the image.

Password

A code used to login to a secure system.

Using a combination of letters, numbers and characters makes a good password.

Paste-Up

The manual placement of text, illustrations and other layout elements on an art board to produce camera-ready artwork.

Pastedown

The half of the endpaper that is pasted to the inside cover of a book

Pastelling Emboss

A process that involves the use of a combination die to provide a subtle antique appearance to material being foil stamped and embossed.

Patch

A small amount of computer code that is written to fix a problem in a production version of software that was not detected before the software was released.

Path

The route an operating system takes to find executable files that it is unable to find in the working directory.

Pathname

The sequence of directory and subdirectory names that identifies the path to a file.

Pattern Adhesive

Adhesive that is applied to the back of the facestock in a pattern opposed to an all over coat of adhesive.

The adhesive coated areas can run parallel or perpendicular to the web direction.

Pattern Carbon

Carbon paper that has had the carbon coating applied only in certain areas so that an image will only transfer in those particular areas.

Also called spot carbon.

Pattern Varnish

Varnish applied to the printed product in a specific area or pattern opposed to an all over coat.

PC

Personal Computer

A PC is a microcomputer whose price, size, and capabilities make it suitable for personal usage.

The term was popularized by Apple Computer with the Apple II in the late-1970s and early-1980s, and afterwards by IBM with the IBM Personal Computer.

PC Card

A storage device that slides in or out of a digital camera and is used to store images.

PCF

Packaging Control File

A step and repeat workflow file format used in editing programs to provide a more efficient process for automating the duplication of a single image two or more times on press plates.

Conventional step and repeat processes transfer high resolution data to a RIP by sending the same “one-up” image file 2 or 3 times depending on the “number up” to be printed on the sheet, resulting in large data files that are slow for the RIP to process.

The PCF file saves RIP processing time and memory storage space by storing only the repeat elements (fold marks, cut marks, images, etc.) in the PCF and linking them to single or multiple RIPed elements or high-resolution files.

As the RIPing output occurs, the links are translated on the fly and converted, thus conserving storage space and RIPing process time.

PCL

Printer Command Language

The language used to control computer printers.

Introduced in the 1980s by computer manufacturers Hewlett-Packard and under constant development ever since, PCL allows application programs to control the functions of different printers in a standardized, efficient manner.

PCX

eProduction eCommerce eXchange

A standard established for the development activities of organizations building applications for supply-chain, e-commerce, marketplace, production, and related systems to enable information to be exchanged and flow effectively between participating partners.

PDA

Personal Digital Assistant

A hand held device that can function as a personal organizer, cell phone and fax sender. A stylus (pen like tool) is used for input rather than a keyboard.

PDF

Portable Document Format

Data format developed by Adobe Systems Inc. and used for exchanging and processing electronically stored, formatted documents with text and images, independent of hardware or software.

This makes it possible to send a formatted document to a computer screen or printer and have it look exactly the way in which it was created.

One of the special features of the format is that texts and graphics are stored in vector form, meaning that the resolution of their representation is dependently solely on the output device (monitor, printer).

You need Acrobat Reader to read PDF files.

PDF/X

Portable Document Format/X

A set of rules which determine which PDF features are allowed. PDF/X defines what is allowed in the PDF document so the printer will know what to expect when he receives the file.

This ensures reliability and makes it easier to work with and transfer PDF documents.

PDF/X-1

Portable Document Format/X-1

A file format which contains all the content, such as text, graphics and image elements, and technical information needed for final print production.

Nothing needs to be supplied alongside the PDF/X-1file.

PDL

A formatting language that describes the layout of text and graphics on a page so that it can be reproduced on a printer or other output devices.

  1. Page Description Language

A formatting language that describes the layout of text and graphics on a page so that it can be reproduced on a printer or other output devices.

PE

Polyethylene

This film is tear, abrasion and weather resistant and is high in durability.

It shrinks at low a temperature range.

PE has a good print surface and has excellent conformability which makes it suitable for labeling on rigid pac

Peel Tab

A slit area on the facestock of a label used to assist in removal of the label from the liner.

Peel Tab

A slit area on the facestock of a label used to assist in removal of the label from the liner. Also referred to as a pull tab.

Pel

A single dot or point in a graphic image.

PEM

Privacy Enhanced Mail

A software application that provides encryption for electronic messaging.

Pen Reactive Ink

A transparent ink that becomes visible with the use of a special felt tip pen.

Pencil Carbon

A carbon paper that can be used repeatedly to transfer an image from one part to the next.

Penetrating Ink

Penetrating inks contain a penetrating red dye that goes into the fibers of the paper and will show through to the back of the document.

Penetrating inks are commonly used on the arabic and MICR numbering of negotiable documents to deter forgers from trying to scrape the number off from the document.

If the number is scraped off the red stain remains on the document.

Penumbra

An area of an image not directly lit.

There are two categories of shadows: umbra and penumbra. Umbra denotes completely shadowed areas and is formed when there is only one pointed light source, as a result of which the area behind the object is completely unlit.

Penumbra refers to partially lit areas, when the light source is not pointed or when there is more than light source.

Per M

Per Thousand

A pricing unit commonly used in printing.

Perceptual Rendering

A rendering method used to preserve the visual color relationship as it is perceived by the human eye, and in which, thus, the color values themselves may change.

The perception-oriented (perceptual) rendering intent reproduces the image taking into consideration paper, dynamic range and color characteristics of the output system, so that that the human eye perceives the image in the destination system (CMYK) true to the original.

In color space conversions, one can choose from perceptual, absolute colorimetric and relative colorimetric.

With perceptual all colors are shifted and compressed until the colors of the source color space fit into the destination color space.

Perf

Perforation

Perfect Binding

A type of binding where the book or magazine’’s binding edge is ground down and coated with a fast drying glue to hold pages together and then are affixed to a cover with a flexible adhesive.

This creates a squared off back.

Perfect Bound

A binding method that utilizes a plastic glue to bind the loose leaves to the solid text block of a book or magazine.

It is used for paperback books.

Perfecting

The process of printing both sides of a sheet of paper in the same pass through the press.

Perfecting Machine

Usually a sheetfed press that prints on both sides of the paper in a single run.

Perfecting Press

A printing press that is capable of printing both sides of the sheet in a single pass through its rollers.

Perfector

A printing press that can print on the front and the back of the paper in one pass through the press.

Perforating Rule

The steel rule that is used when the perforations that must be perpendicular to the direction the paper travels through the printing press.

The perforating rules are inserted into cylinders on the press and as the cylinders revolve, the perforations are cut into the paper.

Perforating Wheel

The steel segmented wheel that is used when a perforation must be applied parallel to the direction that the paper travels through the printing press.

The segmented wheel rolls along the paper and applies the required cuts per inch as the paper is pulled through the press.

Perforation Tear Strength

The amount of pull needed to break a perforation.

Perforations
  1. A series of cuts on a sheet which are generally used to detach a portion of the sheet. Perforations may run either horizontally, vertically, or both directions on a sheet.

The area between cuts is called a “tie”.

  1. Regularly and accurately spaced holes punched throughout the length of 35 mm film for still cameras.
Periodical

Refers to a typesetting and printing job performed under a specific title on a regular basis with a similar layout.

Periodicals

A mail classification for magazines, newspapers and other publications that get mailed in specified intervals.

They are delivered at least four times a year and usually have a list of subscribers.

PERL

A C based programming language.

Permanent Adhesive

A label with this adhesive cannot be removed without the label being destroyed or leaving residue on the object that it was applied to.

Permanent Paper

A paper manufactured in such a manner as to resist chemical action which may result from impurities in the paper itself, as a result of materials or methods used in manufacture, or agents from the surrounding atmosphere while in storage.

A “permanent” paper, is one which resists the effects of aging to a greater degree than is usual in ordinary paper.

This quality of paper would be manufactured from 100% rag (new linen), flax, cotton, or hemp, undyed and unbleached, and produced by hand or machine. It would contain no loading or color additives, and beating and drying would be controlled so as to obtain maximum folding and tearing strengths.

These papers would be used for state or other archives, fine printing, treaties, political records, etc.

Permit

Authorization required to mail without affixing postage.

A postage imprint, also referred to as an indicia, is used instead.

An advance payment is made to the post office and postage payment is deducted from that deposit.

Personal Publishing

Distributing reproduced or printed materials for personal gain or self-satisfaction.

Personalization

The printing of variable data on one sheet to the next.

The variable data may be a name, address, personal message or a combination of data.

Personalized Page Markup Language

An open and extensible XML-based language used to describe the digital structure of a document.

Since the graphic arts industry relies on publishing high quality custom designed documents or products, it is important to create a lanuage enabling transactional printing, such as billing statements or personalized promotions to be output reliably and efficiently.

PPML assists to automate and increase the speed at which digital data or page descriptions are converted into raster data and then output with a high resolution.

Personalized Printing

Refers to print runs in which the individual copies have distinctive imprints.

A minimum requirement for personalized printing is a digital printing process, which allows printing data to vary from copy to copy.

PGP

Pretty Good Privacy

A freeware encryption utility.

pH

The degree of acidity or alkalinity of the paper.

Also, pH is measured in the fountain solutions that are used when printing the paper on the press.

Measured on a scale of 0 to 14, pH7 being neutral, pH above that is alkaline and below that is acidic.

Phantom Image

An image screened very lightly and printed in the body of the form.

It helps protect against unwanted duplicating because the image is hard to reproduce.

The image is light enough so that any imprinting or writing over it can be easily read.

Pharmaceutical Adhesive

A permanent adhesive that is designed for excellent initial tack for applying labels to glass and plastic items, such as syringes and vials.

It has dependable adhesion strength, which holds the label in place. Is FDA approved.

Photo Engraving

Photochemical process for creating gravure plates introduced by the Czech painter and graphic artist Karel Václav Klíc in 1878. Helio engraving was particularly popular between 1890 and 1910 for creating monochrome illustrations in high-quality books.

Photo File Index Print

A basic system feature that makes ordering reprints and enlargements easy; the small print shows a positive, “thumbnail”-sized version of every picture on an Advanced Photo System film roll; accompanies all prints and negatives returned in the sealed film cassette by the photofinisher; each thumbnail picture is numbered on the index print to match negative frames inside the cassette.

Photochromatic Ink

When this ink is exposed to UV light it instantly changes colors.

Once the source of UV light is removed it will change back to its original color.

This ink can be colored or colorless.

Photocomposition
  1. The first fundamentally new typesetting technology since the invention of letterpress printing by Johannes Gutenberg, photocomposition does not use solid forms for depicting the characters.

Instead, the set text is created on photographic film. Older machines performed this function by imaging the characters with a flashlight from a negative original or from a very bright screen (cathode ray tube) onto the film.

The move to computer setting is marked by the laser setter which, like the laser printer, uses a laser beam to write text, images and other design elements directly onto film or a printing plate.

  1. A photographic process using a beam of light that is shot through the transparent image area of a negative, creating a letter image onto sensitized paper or film.
Photoconductor

Flexible material, wrapped around a drum, which accepts an electrical charge and discharges in areas exposed to light.

Photocopier

A machine that creates a copy of a physical image through a process in which electrostatically charged powder (toner) is bonded to paper using heat.

Photoengraving

A photochemical process used to make relief plates used for letterpress and engraving.

Photofinisher Service Certification

Program developed by the System Developing Companies to give special recognition to photofinishers and retailers who provide the minimum Advanced Photo System feature set; an identifying logo signals to consumers which photofinishers and retailers provide all of the mandatory benefits of the system.

Photogravure

A photographic image produced from an engraving plate, which gives it an art quality of a lithograph.

The process was developed in the 1850s but is rarely used today because of the high cost.

Photomechanical Transfer

A process where original copy is exposed to a photosensitive paper, which is then mated with a receiver paper.

The two are process together, which results in the image being transferred to the receiver paper, producing a black and white print.

No negative is needed in this process.

Photometer

A device used to measure the intensity of the light.

Photopolymer

A plate material that consists of an epoxy resin which is sensitized with an organic compound. An organic solvent is used to process the plates after exposure to ultra-violet light.

The coating on the unexposed areas of the plate are dissolved with the solvent, but the exposed areas become insoluble and are receptive to ink.

Photopolymer Plate

A kind of plate with a flexible base material, excellently suited for use on rotary printing presses.

Photopolymer plates have widely replaced stereotype plates.

Photoreceptor

A receptor that transfers information onto paper in the form of an image.

Photoshop

An image editing software created by Adobe, which provides an array of tools to create, alter, and add effects to a variety of digital or original images.

Photostat

A trademark for a diffusion transfer process that makes quick, positive paper prints of line copy and halftones.

Phototype

Type created photographically by light being projected onto photosensitive paper.

Phototypesetting

Setting type, by using photographical means, directly onto photosensitive paper or film.

Pi Fonts

Fonts that are special characters that are not in other fonts but can be specially added, such as special symbols and mathematical signs.

Pica

A unit of measure used in the graphics industry which equals 12 points or approximately one-sixth of an inch.

Pick and Pack

The storing and releasing of customer materials.

Items are stored and records are maintained on the inventory levels.

Items are pulled from stock and release upon customer’’s request.

Also referred to as fulfillment.

Picking

The lifting of fibers out of the paper due to the ink being too tacky.

It causes small white dots in the solid areas of the printing.

Picking Resistance

Refers to the amount of force necessary to separate particles from the surface of the paper as it moves vertically.

Picking resistance is a key criterion for offset-printing applications.

Pickup Art

Artwork taken from a previous job to be used on a currrent job.

PICT

A common data format used for vector graphics used on illustrations on the Mac.

It is a format also used by the Clipboard.

You can create, display on the monitor, and print PICT data.

PICT 2

An expanded file format of PICT, supports 32-bit color, where as, PICT only supports 8-bit color.

Pictorial Cloth

A cloth book with a multi-colored picture printed on the cover.

Pictorial Paper Cover

An Illustration printed on a paperback cover.

This decorative practice began in the early 1850s, with the publication of Letters Left at the Pastry-Cook’s by J.S. Mayhew, and was the precursor of the next trend in publishing yellowbacks.

The sensational pictorial paper cover novels of the later 19th and 20th centuries are famous for their lurid, colorful covers.

Also known as illustrated wraps

Piece Rate

The postage cost per piece for non pre-sorted mail.

Piggyback Labels

A label that has two label layers and a liner.

The top label has adhesive on the back, the second label has a release coating on the front (to allow the top label to be pulled off) and adhesive on the back.

When it is pulled off the liner and blown on to the form, the adhesive on the back of the second label is what holds the label onto the form.

Pigment

The chemical composition or particles that are mixed into printing inks in order to create ink body, color and opacity.

Pigment Color

A coloring element that is formed when white light strikes an object that reflects part of the spectrum while absorbing other regions and the remitted light has a different spectral distribution than the original light.

Pigment colors are non-luminous, and can only be created through absorption or reflection of light.

Pin Register

A system using a series of pins used to maintain registration from prepress to press.

It is used to register film to film, film to plates, and plates to press.

Pinfeed Holes

Evenly spaced holes that are punched into the left and right margins of a continuous form, used at the collator to guide the paper through and align each part.

They are also used to guide the form through a continuous printer.

PING

Packet InterNet Groper

Software that permits a user to determine whether other machines are online and available.

Pinging is performed by sending an ICMP echo request and waiting for a reply.

Pinholes

Tiny holes in a printed area that did not get covered by ink.

Pirate Edition

An unauthorized edition of a book that is usually sold abroad without payment to the author.

Pitch

A measure used to determine the number proportional type characters that can be placed within an inch.

If the type is designated as 8 pitch there are 8 characters per inch.

Pixel

The smallest unit of a digitized image created by a digital device, such as a computer, camera, or scanner. Pixel is short for “picture element”.

The more pixels per inch the better the resolution. On computer monitors, the display is divided into rows and columns containing thousands or millions of pixels.

Each pixel is composed of three dots representing the three color channels of red, green, and blue light that are necessary for creating a color image on computer monitors and television screens.

Because of their small size, the pixels appear to merge, simulating a continuous tone image, but when magnified they appear to be tiny square blocks of light, as shown in the illustration below.

Pixel Format

A format for storing image data in which, for a given resolution every pixel in the image is represented by the corresponding data.

Image processing programs such as Photoshop use the pixel format, the most common being TIFF (Tagged Image File Format).

The pixel format is most suitable for real images, but, depending on the quality of the image, it requires large amounts of memory.

Pixel Graphic

A graphic or image represented as a matrix of picture elements or pixels.

Pixel Swapping

An image editing technique where pixels from one area of an image replace the pixels in another area.

By using this technique touch ups can be done to the image to change its appearance.

Pixelization

A noticeable display of the pixels forming jagged edges which occurs as the image is enlarged and the square pixels become most noticeable on lines or curves.

Pixels Per Inch

The number of pixels per inch displayed across or down a monitor.

Pixels Per Square Inch

Ppi

Specifies the resolution of an image, as it appears on a monitor.

PJTF

Portable Job Ticket Format

A PDF digital job ticket developed by Adobe.

It contains commerce information, such as job number, customer, customer address and quotes, the prepress data, such as trapping, color management and preflight and the variables that control those processes.

PKZIP

Phil Katz’s ZIP Program

An archiving tool originally written by the late Phil Katz, and marketed by his company PKWARE, Inc.

The first version of PKZIP appeared in 1989.

It was a DOS command-line tool and was distributed as shareware with a $25 registration fee.

PKZIP 1 used three different compression algorithms, colourfully referred to as “shrinking”, “reducing” and “imploding” which were chosen based on the characteristics of the file being compressed.

Although popular at the time, files in PKZIP 1 format are now rare, and many modern unzip tools are unable to handle “shrinking” and “reducing”, although “imploding” is usually supported.

Plain Text

Textual data in the ASCII format that is not encrypted.

Most portable format used because it is supported by almost every application on every machine.

Planographic

The process to print impressions from a smooth surface rather than from creating incised or relief areas on the plate. The term was devised to describe lithography.

Plastic Comb Binding

A binding method that uses a plastic comb type material, inserted through prepunched holes in a stack of paper, to bind the sheets together.

Plastic Wrapping

A method of wrapping packages or products with a plastic film and then applying heat so that the wrap fits tight to the product.

Plastic wrapping is used to package a product in specific quantities and is also used for protection purposes.

It also adds some stability to the product when storing.

Plate
  1. A metal or paper light-sensitive sheet that holds an image that has been photographically produced.

During the printing process, the image area picks up ink, which is then transferred to a blanket and then to paper.

  1. A full-page book illustration that is separate from the text pages.

Technically, illustrations that are printed on text pages are called cuts. However, the term “plate” is often used to describe both types of book illustrations.

Plate Characteristics

A representation of data and factors required for digital platesetters to control the output quality during production and defined using a control wedge.

These characteristics must be checked regularly.

Plate Cylinder

The cylinder on a press where the plate is mounted.

Platemaking

A prepress process where a “flat” (masking sheet with negative stripped into it) is laid on a plate, the plate is exposed and then processed.

The plate is then ready to be taken out to the press.

Platen

That part of the press on which you put your card or paper to be printed

Platen Press

A type of relief press, where during the printing process, grippers move a sheet of paper from the feedboard to the platen, which is the surface where the print impression is made.

A set of rollers applies ink to the type in a chase on the press bed. The press bed and the platen are pressed together like a clamshell which produces the image on the paper.

Plotter

A device that draws lines on a piece of paper based on commands received from a computer.

It differs from a printer in that it uses a pencil to draw the lines so it can draw a continuous line where as a printer uses a series of dots.

Multi-color plotters have different color pencils.

Plotters are used when precision is necessary, such as in engineering applications.

Plug-In

A separate piece of software that is added to work with another larger piece of software.

The plug-in adds features to the other software.

Ply

1.One page or part of a multiple part form.

  1. Each layer in a multiple layered material.
PMS

Pantone Matching System

A registered name for an ink color matching system used to compare, match and identify specific colors.

PMT

Photomechanical Transfer

A process where original copy is exposed to a photosensitive paper, which is then mated with a receiver paper.

The two are process together, which results in the image being transferred to the receiver paper, producing a black and white print.

No negative is needed in this process.

PO Number

An identifying number that is unique to each purchase oder.

The PO number allow the correct purchase order to be referenced for tracking and billing transactions.

POD

Printing documents electronically when needed, rather than printing stock in advance and keeping it in storage.

Point

1.In regard to type, it is used to state the size of the type.

The ‘’point size’’ of the type is measured from the bottom of the descender to the top of the ascender.

There are 12 points in a pica and 72 points in an inch.

2.When using in regard paper, it is the measurement of the thickness of the paper. 1 point equals 1/1000 of an inch.

The thickness of 10 pt. stock would equal 10/1000 or 0.010 in.

Point of Presence

A location where a network may be connected.

This can be done through dial up lines or lines can be leased to connect the network.

Point of Purchase

The location where a product can be purchased.

Point of Purchase Display

A display that is located on the counter or in the area where a product is purchased.

Point-to-Point

A feature of a communications system that enables one or more stations to check with other systems to see if there is a message ready to be sent.

Point-to-Point Network

When only two stations can check to see if a message is ready to be sent.

They share the same transmission line at the same time.

Point-to-Point Protocol

PPP

The most popular protocol for establishing dial-up connections to the Internet.

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

PPTP

A new technology used to allow TCP/IP data to be transmitted over non-TCP/IP networks.

A common use for PPTP is to join physical networks together to form “virtual internets” using the Internet as a means to accomplish this.

The PPTP ensures that messages sent back and forth on the “virtual internet” are secure.

Pointer

The address of a link, stored in memory, that points a to a related field, file, record, or control block.

Points

Facts and characteristics of the printing and binding of a book that may help indicate the priority of issue.

Polarization Filter

A transparent optical medium which only allows electromagnetic waves of one polarization to penetrate. Of the light waves normally moving in all directions, polarization filters only allow to pass those components of an oscillation that come from a certain direction.

These directed light beams hit the measured object and are then reflected partly in a mirror-like way. Unlike diffuse reflection, direct reflection does not alter the oscillation direction of light.

These components can be eliminated with a second polarization filter positioned at 90 degrees.

Densitometers with polarization filters show identical values for wet and dry prints which are, however, slightly higher than on devices without polfilters.

Polarizing Screen

Filter

A filter that transmits light traveling in one plane while absorbing light traveling in other planes. When placed on a camera lens or on light sources, it can eliminate undesirable reflections from a subject such as water, glass, or other objects with shiny surfaces. This filter also darkens blue sky.

Polaroid

A process in which finished photographs are produced within the camera device itself; the first major development in photography since the genre was invented.

The process works on the basis of developer substances in paste form, which are distributed over the imaged film after a photograph has been taken and act on the film by diffusion.

This method was invented by Edwin Herbert Land (1909-1991), who founded the Polaroid Corporation in 1937, and launched the first Polaroid Land camera in 1947.

This camera produced a black-and-white paper image one minute after the photograph had been taken.

The millionth instant camera was sold in 1956. The first Polaroid color camera was launched in 1963.

Polaroid declared bankruptcy at the end of 2001, as the technology has become obsolete, in large part due to the popularity of digital photography.

Polfilter

A transparent optical medium which only allows electromagnetic waves of one polarization to penetrate. Of the light waves normally moving in all directions, polarization filters only allow to pass those components of an oscillation that come from a certain direction.

These directed light beams hit the measured object and are then reflected partly in a mirror-like way. Unlike diffuse reflection, direct reflection does not alter the oscillation direction of light.

These components can be eliminated with a second polarization filter positioned at 90 degrees.

Densitometers with polarization filters show identical values for wet and dry prints which are, however, slightly higher than on devices without polfilters.

Poly Bag

A clear bag, made of polyurethane instead of paper, used as an outside mailing envelope.

Generally used to mail magazines and newsletters.

Polyester

Polyester is a substrate that is durable and weather resistant, which is used as a base material for some types of film, printing plates and label facestock.

It can withstand high levels of abuse and abrasion, and resists most solvents and oils.

Polyester has high heat resistance and high tensile strength.

It is generally clear but is available with opaque and metallized finishes.

Polyester Plates

A plastic substrate used for analog and digital offset printing plates.

The polyester substrate is coated with an emulsion of either silver halide, which is imaged with lasers, or a toner-based coating, which is similar to the technology used for laser printers and copiers.

Polyester plates are suitable for smaller print jobs of less than 25,000 impressions.

Improved technology has resulted in plates that produce excellent results, allowing them to be used for almost any type of short run application.

Polyethylene

This film is tear, abrasion and weather resistant and is high in durability.

PE has a good print surface and has excellent conformability which makes it suitable for labeling on rigid pac

It shrinks at low a temperature range.

Polyolefin

Has good printability.

Is very strong and has a high chemical resistance.

Good for indoor and outdoor use.

Excellent for drum label applications.

Polypropylene Terephthalate Glycol

A film that has a shrinkage rate comparable to PVC and is also a high density, high strength film with excellent clarity.

It is a good dimensionally stable product and is abrasion resistant.

Polystyrene

A film that is low in durability with medium rigidity, which provides ease in converting and dispensing.

It has a smooth surface that allows it to be easily printed.

It is not recommended for use outdoors.

Polyvinyl Chloride

A high density film with an excellent shrinkage rate at a low shrink temperature.

It has high impact strength and has excellent clarity and good print quality.

PVC is grease and solvent resistant and has good weather resistance.

It is tasteless, odorless and non-toxic but less environmentally friendly than some of the other films.

POP

1.Point of Presence

A location where a network may be connected. This can be done through dial up lines or lines can be leased to connect the network.

  1. 2.Point of Purchase

The location where a product can be purchased.

    1. Post Office Protocol

The text-based protocol used to send and retrieve Internet e-mail messages.

Pop Test

A test used to measure the bursting strength of paper.

Pop-Up Advertising

A method of advertising on the Internet, in which windows open automatically when a web page is accessed, usually partially hiding the content of the relevant page.

Porosity

The compactness of the fibers in the paper.

The compactness of the fibers affects the degree in which the paper allows gas or liquid to pass through it.

Port

A common computer connecting device which enables images or data to be transmitted in multiple bits (8 bits per time) rather than single bits one at a time.

A faster method than serial cables for transferring images. Most often used to connect printers, external storage devices, and card readers to the computer.

Port

1.A location in your computer where data comes in and goes out.

2.Port also refers to a number that is part of your URL. All services on an Internet server listen on a port number on that server.

A Web server normally will listen on port 80. 3.

The translating of a piece of software from one type of a computer system to another.

An example would be translating something from a Windows program so that a Macintosh could read it.

Portable Document Format

PDF

A file format developed by Adobe.

It can capture formatting information from many publishing applications.

This makes it possible to send a formatted document to a computer screen or printer and have it look exactly the way in which it was created.

You need Acrobat Reader to read PDF files.

Portable Document Format/X

PDF/X

A set of rules which determine which PDF features are allowed.

PDF/X defines what is allowed in the PDF document so the printer will know what to expect when he receives the file.

This ensures reliability and makes it easier to work with and transfer PDF documents.

Portable Job Ticket Format

A PDF digital job ticket developed by Adobe.

It contains commerce information, such as job number, customer, customer address and quotes, the prepress data, such as trapping, color management and preflight and the variables that control those processes.

Portal

A marketing term used to describe a Web site that is intended to be the first locaction a person goes to when entering the Web.

Usually this site will have a listing of other Web sites, a search engine, or anything else that will entice the user to select this site as their opening site.

Portfolio

A portable case used to protect loose papers, plates, pamphlets, and the like.

It usually consists of two boards with a wide cloth or paper joint forming the “spine.”

Can also refer to an artist’s body of work.

Portrait Mode

The orientation of sheets of paper, with the long dimension of the page running vertical.

Landscape would be the opposite mode.

Position Proof

A color proof produced to check for positioning and registration of all the elements for that job.

Positive
  1. A photographic image, made on paper or film, that keeps the same tonal orientation as the original.

The photographic image is the same color as the original.

The white areas on the original will be white on paper and clear on film.

  1. The opposite of a negative, an image with the same tonal relationships as those in the original scenes-for example, a finished print or a slide.
Post Bind

Binding a group of loose leaf sheets using a screw and post inserted through the holes that are punched in the sheets.

Post Office Protocol

POP

The text-based protocol used to send and retrieve Internet e-mail messages.

Post-Consumer Waste

Waste paper that has passed through the end-user, such as newspapers, office papers, paper bags and cartons.

Post-Process

A term used to describe any finishing work that is done to the product that is output from an electronic printing system.

Postal Certification

USPS certification that shows proof of quantity, cost and mailing date.

Postal Numeric Encoding Technique

POSTNET

These are bar codes that are used to encode the zip codes on mail for the Postal Service.

The bar code is what allows the routing of mail quickly and accurately.

Poster Paper

Paper grade for large-format posters, mainly highly mechanical and heavily sized.

Posterize

A special effect created by transforming an image to a more stark form by reducing the gray levels of the image.

Posting

When an electronic message is sent to a network communication system, such as a newsgroup or a bulletin board system.

POSTNET

Postal Numeric Encoding Technique

These are bar codes that are used to encode the zip codes on mail for the Postal Service.

The bar code is what allows the routing of mail quickly and accurately.

Postpress

A general term for all processing operations performed on the printed product after the printing process itself is concluded.

Examples of postpress procedures include folding, binding, trimming and packaging.

Postprint

The term used to describe various processes or operations performed on a printed product after the print run itself.

Depending on the type of product, these processes can include folding, collating or trimming of the printed sheets, as well as binding or packing.

PostScript

A page description language developed by Adobe which has become a standard in the digital prepress stage.

This is a language used for printing documents on laser printers and other output devices, such as imagesetters which are used to produce camera-ready copy.

PostScript is an object-oriented language which means it treats images, including the fonts, as geometrical objects rather than as bitmaps.

It describes documents largely independently of the device used, so that, for example. the resolution of an image is not defined until the output device has been determined.

PostScript 2 offers improved colorimetric facilities, since the reference color space is integrated in accordance with the CIE standard.

PostScript 3 also improves the way in which colors and three-dimensional objects are displayed and supports the trapping of graphic objects.

PP

Polypropylene

A film that is highly durable, has excellent tensile strength and high heat resistant.

It is resistant to moisture and most acids and alkalies.

It has good printability and is lightweight.

Ppi

Pixels Per Square Inch

Specifies the resolution of an image, as it appears on a monitor.

PPM

Pages Per Minute

PPP

Point-to-Point Protocol

The most popular protocol for establishing dial-up connections to the Internet.

PPTP

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

A new technology used to allow TCP/IP data to be transmitted over non-TCP/IP networks.

A common use for PPTP is to join physical networks together to form “virtual internets” using the Internet as a means to accomplish this.

The PPTP ensures that messages sent back and forth on the “virtual internet” are secure.

Pre-Bar Coding

The use of software to preprint the POSTNET bar codes on the mailing materials prior to reaching the postal distribution center.

Pre-bar coded materials enable organizations to lower their postal rate for the mailing.

Pre-Consumer Waste

Waste paper that has been disposed of during converting process.

This may consist of paper trim, die clippings from die cutting of envelopes and corrugated boxes, or waste off the printing press.

This is waste that has not passed through the end user.

Precanceled Stamps

An optional postage payment method for presorted and automation First Class Mail and all presorted Standard Mail (A) mailings.

A stamp that has been marked across the face before being sold to the mailer.

Also, the USPS has stamps designated as precancelled that do not have the markings.

Precollated

Carbonless sheets that have been assembled into the proper sequence to make a complete set.

Preflight

A procedure used to be sure all digital files have been prepared properly before putting them into production.

The are checked for correct type fonts, completeness, composition, and compatibility.

Preflight Check

The test or assessment made in the prepress process in which output is simulated and files are reviewed for the existence of all required fonts and graphics.

This kind of check can also indicate whether image resolution is too low or too high, whether spot colors are improperly defined and can reveal other potential errors as well.

Preforms

Preforms are shrink film bands that are preformed to fit a particular container.

When heat is applied they shrink to fit tight around the lid of the container.

They help seal the product and provide a tamper evident protection.

Preliminary Pages

Prelims

The first pages of the book that appear before the text begins.

Prelims

Preliminary Pages

The first pages of the book that appear before the text begins.

Premiere

A video editing software created by Adobe, which provides tools to work with video files.

Premium

A free gift included in a direct mail package or sent to the customer when they respond to the offer.

Prepress

All of the functions, such as composition, camera work, color separating, stripping, platemaking and any other function required to prepare for the actual printing of the order.

Prepress Proof

Any proof that has been made, using a photographical process opposed to a press proof that is an actual printed copy off the press.

Preprinted Form

A sheet of paper containing a preprinted design or preprinted information to which varying information can be added by some method of printing.

Presentation Copy

A book with an inscription which shows that it was a gift from the author or publisher.

See also Inscribed Copy

Presorting

The process of sorting the mail, by ZIP code, down to the finest extent necessary to meet the standard requirements for the mail rate being claimed.

Press Characteristics

A diagram which shows the extent of dot gain occurring in the printing process, and is the graphic representation of the relationship between the tone values of the prepress product, the film or the printing plate and the corresponding tone values in printing.

Printing characteristics describe the extent to which a halftone image will get darker during printing due to dot gain.

The curve is applicable to one press and depends on different parameters. The curve is determined by means of a stepped gray wedge, and much attention must be paid to such factors as paper grade, screen, printing ink, printing press, ink filling, dampening, and even room temperature and air humidity.

Press Check

Printed sheets from the press that are pulled once all the makeready has been completed.

The sheets are checked for quality and accuracy before authorization is given to go ahead with the full production run.

Sheets may be pulled throughout the run to do press checks to assure that quality is being maintained.

Press Numbering

Forms are numbered at the press as they are being printed.

The number is red on each part because each part is being numbered separately before they are collated together.

All parts do not have to be numbered when doing numbering at the press and the number location can change from part to part.

Press Proof

A proof used to check the result of the entire printing process.

It is the most complex control tool in the printing process; its greatest advantage is that it provides a realistic impression of the final product, independent of the preprint process.

Press proofs come closest to the printed result when produced on the paper to be used for the print run.

Press Run

The total quantity of pieces printed during one printing.

Pressure Sensitive

A property of substrates and paper stocks indicating that the material may be affected by impact, friction or weight.

An example would be pressure sensitive paper which has an adhesive layer, which adheres to a surface when weight or friction is applied.

Another example would be carbonless papers, which are sensitive to impact.

Impact to the carbonless paper causes the chemical coating to rupture and form an image.

Pressure Sensitive Adhesive

It is called pressure sensitive because when the adhesive comes in contact with a surface and pressure is applied to the label, the adhesive will allow the facestock to stick.

Pressure Sensitive Labels

Labels printed on pressure sensitive paper stock.

A liner is removed from the back of the label and the label is then attached to a surface and pressured is applied.

Pressure Sensitive Paper

Paper made up of 3 laminated layers – the liner, adhesive, and facestock.

It is called pressure sensitive because when the liner is removed, the adhesive will allow the facestock to stick to another surface when pressure is applied to it.

Pressure Sensitive Tape

A tape which consists of a liner covering a double sided adhesive, wound into a large roll. As the tape is unwound, the exposed side of the adhesive is applied to the front or back of a sheet.

To use the tape, the liner material is removed to expose the other side of the adhesive, allowing the product to be attached to another form, a carton, a plastic container, or numerous other items.

Also referred to as PS tape or transfer tape.

Pretty Good Privacy

PGP

A freeware encryption utility.

Preview Screen

A small LCD display that can be enclosed in a digital camera frame or may swing out from the camera body and is used to either compose the image or review an image photographed.

Price Break

The order quantity level at which the price of the paper or printed material goes down.

Price Clipped

The inside front corner of dust jacket has the price cut off.

Primary

The three defining colors of a color wheel, from which all other colors are built.

Primary Color

One of the three colors that cannot be attained by mixing. When equal amounts of two primary colors are mixed, a first-order secondary color is produced.

Every color model is comprised of three primary colors. The additive primary colors are red, green and blue (RGB).

The subtractive primary colors are cyan, magenta and yellow (CMYK stands for key and refers to black for contrast).

Each secondary color of the one color model is a primary color in the other.

A second-order secondary color is produced by mixing different amounts of two primary colors. Tertiary colors are a combination of different amounts of all three primary colors.

Primary Colors

A set of three colors from which all other colors can be reproduced.

The subtractive primary colors, ink colors, are cyan, magenta and yellow.

The additive primary colors, electronic light colors, are red, green and blue.

Primary Labels

A product’’s main identification label.

It is generally the label on the front of the product and is used to draw attention to the product.

Primary Pulps

The raw materials for paper manufacturing removed from virgin forest products by mechanical means (woodpulp) or by a chemical process (chemical pulp)

Primer

A coating applied to the back of the facestock to help assist the adhesive in sticking to it and to prevent some adhesives from bleeding through or staining the facestock.

It is only needed when using certain types of adhesives.

Print
  1. A mark or impression made in or on a surface by pressure.

  2. A printed publication, such as a book, magazine or newspaper.

  3. A design or picture transferred from an engraved plate, wood block, lithographic stone, or commercial print equipment.

  4. Printed matter.

  5. A photographic image transferred to paper or a similar surface, usually from a negative.

  6. Printed state or form.

  7. A device or implement, such as a stamp, die, or seal, used to press markings onto or into a surface.

  8. Lettering or other impressions produced in ink as from type by a printing press or from digital fonts by an electronic printer.

Print and Turn

The procedure by which a printing plate can be printed on both sides.

After one side is printed, the plate is turned and the side guide (pull lay) exchanged, while the front guides remain where they are.

See “work and tumble”.

Print Description Language

A formatting language that describes the layout of text and graphics on a page so that it can be reproduced on a printer or other output devices.

Print Head

The part of the print mechanism on a printer that enables the image to be printed on the paper.

Print On Demand

POD

Printing documents electronically when needed, rather than printing stock in advance and keeping it in storage.

Print Server

A computer that manages the printing demands of one or more printers, local or remote.

The print server keeps track of print jobs, permits changes to print queues, and sends jobs to the printers.

Print Service

A service providing hard copy printing, using an electronic printer connected to a server.

Printability

The ability of paper or other surfaces to accept ink.

Some characteristics that affect printability are smoothness, gloss, whiteness, absorbency, opacity and ink holdout.

The ink and press room conditions also affect the paper’’s printability.

Printable Area

The area on a sheet of paper where the printer has the ability to print.

Printer

1. Person or company that produces printed products.

    1. A device that produces a printed image on paper or another flat medium from digital data received electronically.
Printer Command Language

PCL

The language used to control computer printers.

Introduced in the 1980s by computer manufacturers Hewlett-Packard and under constant development ever since, PCL allows application programs to control the functions of different printers in a standardized, efficient manner.

Printer Driver

Software that translates digital data being sent by a computer into a format that is understood by that particular printer, generally using printer command language or page description language.

Printer Spreads

Mechanicals that are set up the way the sheet is imposed for printing on the press.

A four page brochure would have pages 1 and 4 on one and pages 2 and 3 on another.

Printing Characteristics

A diagram which shows the extent of dot gain occurring in the printing process, and is the graphic representation of the relationship between the tone values of the prepress product, the film or the printing plate and the corresponding tone values in printing.

Printing characteristics describe the extent to which a halftone image will get darker during printing due to dot gain.

The curve is applicable to one press and depends on different parameters. The curve is determined by means of a stepped gray wedge, and much attention must be paid to such factors as paper grade, screen, printing ink, printing press, ink filling, dampening, and even room temperature and air humidity.

Printing Frame

A device used for contact printing that holds a negative against the photographic paper.

The paper is exposed by light from an external light source.

Printing on Demand

A process in which a few copies of a document are printed as needed, instead of a pre-defined, larger production run.

Print on demand has been made possible by digital printing technology, which allows direct printing from prepress data, without having to produce printing forms or set up presses.

Priority Mail

First Class Mail that weighs over 13 ounces.

The mailer can also selects this option for mail that weighs 13 ounces or less. Priority Mail expedites delivery and can be used on any mailable matter.

Prism

In geometry a body with two parallel planes; in optics a body used to reflect light and generate a light spectrum.

A prism is made of material that has a greater angle of refraction than its surrounding, which means that beams of light striking the short side of the prism vertically are totally reflected from the inside at the long side and exit at the second short side.

Prismatic Printing

A special printing technique where a pantograph background is printed in two or more colors on the same printing unit.

The different ink colors merge where they meet in the ink fountain to form a blend of colors in the background.

Pristine Condition

A book in its original condition, unchanged in any way.

Privacy Enhanced Mail

PEM

A software application that provides encryption for electronic messaging.

Private Key

The encryption algorithm key that is maintained in secrecy by the user.

Private Press

A small establishment that is not associated with a large publishing/printing house.

Private presses decide which works they will print, frequently do their own press work, and print editions in limited numbers of copies.

Privately Printed

A work printed at the expense of the author or some other private individual or group.

Process
  1. A unique course of events achieved under defined conditions.

  2. Any operation or combination of operations affecting data.

  3. A series of actions or activities being performed or waiting to be performed.

  4. The activity of a program in operation.

Process Calibration

A process by which production conditions and color standards are specified, which includes the determination of required colorimetric and densitometric values as well as of dot gain for the CMYK process colors.

As far as ink and paper, the standards can be identified in tests and documented. In order to optimize the prepress stage, all necessary output devices are calibrated at the beginning so that they always deliver identical, repeatable results.

In a further step, the imagesetters are adjusted so that the desired dot gain in printing is ensured. Once standardization has been carried out, the color space of the printing press and upstream output systems is measured.

The data determined is then used to define ICC profiles, which are fed into the workflow to ensure true color through all stages – from the calibrated monitor to the proof and the printing press.

Process Camera

A camera that converts copy into high contrast film negatives.

The process camera is able to produce images from line art, text, black and white photographs, and full-color photographs.

Process Color

Creating color images by combining four standard printing inks (cyan, yellow, magenta and black) in a manner that allows almost all colors to be reproduced.

Process Color Ink

One of the standard colors in four-color printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, black.

Process Color Printing

The printing method that is used to print full color images.

Also referred to “four color printing.” A halftone made of each of the color separations is printed in the appropriate color ink.

Printing each color in accordance with each other produces a full color printed image.

Process Color Separations

The process of separating the primary or process colors from a colored image.

The separation is done by means of red, green, and blue filters in a process camera or color scanner which produce four continuous tone negatives.

There is one for each of the primary colors used in the printing process: cyan, magenta, yellow. Black is also added to give definition to the printed piece.

The separations are screened and printing plates are made from them.

Process Fluctuation

Errors or instabilities in the CtP exposure unit or printing press that can result in unsightly mottling or striping.

In the event that the optical density varies from copy to copy, such a fluctuation can immediately be seen when directly comparing printed products.

Process Inks

Transparent inks that are specially formulated to be used in four color process printing.

Process Yellow

It is one of the subtractive primary colors (the others are cyan and magenta) which for the basis of color printing.

Yellow is complementary to, or opposite of, the additive primary color blue.

This is because yellow is formed when the additive primaries other than blue, (red and green) are mixed together.

Processing

Developing, fixing, and washing exposed photographic film or paper to produce either a negative image or a positive image.

Processor

Microprocessor or CPU. Controls the logic of most digital devices.

Production Run

The final run of the product according to all specifications opposed to the makeready.

Program Exposure

An exposure mode on an automatic or autofocus camera that automatically sets both the aperture and the shutter speed for proper exposure.

Program Paper

A flabby, generally woodfree paper made from chemical pulp derived from the soft leaves of hardwood trees. Allows noiseless page-turning.

Programming Language

A set of rules and instructions that are given to a computer through the use of a coded system.

Progressive JPEG

A file format that allows your image to gradually come into focus on the screen as it is being downloaded from the Web.

Progressive Proof

A sequence of press proofs showing the addition of each color.

Progressive Proofs

Proofs used to assess the colors on the printing stock.

In four color printing, the four process colors cyan, magenta, yellow and black are printed both alone and in various combinations over a small are

Progs

A sequence of press proofs showing the addition of each color.

Projected Frame

A viewing device on a camera to show the subject area that will be recorded on the film.

Also known as viewfinder and Finder.

Promotional Mailer

A type of mail device used for advertising materials which does not require a standard business envelope or package as a means to send the item.

The promotional mailer may be produced as a simple folded self mailer or as a continuous form having component parts of an outside envelope and inside inserts.

Proof

A single print of a document which serves as a means of verifying proper text and layout.

In analog proof procedures such as Dry-Match and Press-Match, the proof is created from ready imaged films, which accurately show the subsequent print product.

In digital proofing, the page composed on the computer is output on a color printer.

This proof is more cost-effective, as it does not require the use of film, though imaging procedures remain untested.

A copy of the artwork representing the finished product. It is used for review and approval.

Proofing Bars

Color bars are also referred to as color control bars, color control strips, or proofing bars.

Color bars are rows of different colored patches printed in the trim area of the press sheet.

They are used by proofers and press operators to control the trapping, ink density, dot gain, and print contrast of the proof or the printed sheet.

Also See Color Control Strips.

Proofread

Checking a proof for errors or discrepancies from the original copy.

Proofreader

A person who checks a proof for errors or discrepancies from the original copy.

Proofreaders Marks

A proofreader uses special coded marks to show changes or corrections on a proof.

Proportion Scale

A round device that is used to determine the percentage of enlargement or reduction needed to produce a specific size from the original image.

Proportional Spacing

A method of spacing characters to adjust to the varying widths of letters and figures.

This increases readability.

Typesetting done on a computer is proportional space, whereas typesetting done on a typewriter would be monospaced.

Proprietary System

Custom designed computer workstations that have been set up to perform specific tasks, such as color correction or page layout.

Generally means that user only has access to one manufacturer’’s software or system.

Protective Coating

A coating that is added to provide protection to the printing and surface of the product. It protects against sunlight, chemicals, moisture and abrasion.

Protocol

A standard set of rules and formats that govern the manner in which a data transfer is conducted over a network or the Internet.

Provenance

The history of the previous owners of a book. Bookplates, notes and other writings in the book, and inserted matter, may determine provenance.

Proxy

Software on a Web server or firewall that helps provide security by filtering unauthorized use.

PS

Polystyrene

A film that is low in durability with medium rigidity, which provides ease in converting and dispensing. It has a smooth surface that allows it to be easily printed.

It is not recommended for use outdoors.

PS Tape

A tape which consists of a liner covering a double sided adhesive, wound into a large roll. As the tape is unwound, the exposed side of the adhesive is applied to the front or back of a sheet.

To use the tape, the liner material is removed to expose the other side of the adhesive, allowing the product to be attached to another form, a carton, a plastic container, or numerous other items.

PSI

Pounds per Square Inch

Psychographics

Characteristics that reflect lifestyles, attitudes, personal values and purchasing habits.

Public Domain Software

Software available free of charge for download and use on the Internet or through users groups.

Public Key

The encryption algorithm that is public and widely available.

Public Key Encryption

A type of encryption where two pairs of algorithmic keys, one public and one private, are used to encrypt and decrypt messages, files, etc.

Publication Printer

Manufacturers of magazines, catalogs, books and newspaper inserts.

Publishing

Making information available to the public, generally through the use of a printed product, but could also be accomplished an electronic media such as the Internet.

Pull Model

A process used in variable information processing involving the creation of marketing materials for a target audience who have specfifcally requested specific information.

Car dealers or manufacturers will often create a mailing based on requests from new car buyers who have submitted specific information regarding their buying habits, likes and dislikes.

Pull Quote

A small section of text pulled from an article or book and emphasized by enlarging the type or by putting a box around it.

Pull Tab

A slit area on the facestock of a label used to assist in removal of the label from the liner.

Pulp

Cellulose fibers extracted from organic materials and used for the production of paper.

The cellulose fiber can come from wood, straw, cotton, hemp, bamboo, reeds and various other materials.

It can be produced by mechanically or chemically means.

PUR Binding

A method of binding books and brochures using polyurethane adhesive, which is applied at a high temperature and hardens as it cools.

PUR binding is a high-quality binding method, ideal for high-use products such as trade show catalogs and for difficult types of paper.

Pure Color

Light of a single wavelength. When white light is separated by means of a prism, a continuum of the spectral colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet is produced.

A spectral color cannot be further separated.

Purge

The process of removing the duplicate names from combined mailing lists.

Push Processing

Increasing the development time of a film to increase its effective speed (raising the ISO number for initial exposure ) for low-light situations; forced development.

PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride

A high density film with an excellent shrinkage rate at a low shrink temperature.

It has high impact strength and has excellent clarity and good print quality.

PVC is grease and solvent resistant and has good weather resistance.

It is tasteless, odorless and non-toxic but less environmentally friendly than some of the other films.


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