Glossary of Printing Terms:L

LA

Library Association

The UK trade association for librarians.

Label

A square or rectangular piece of paper or leather attached to the spine of a book, containing printed information about the book, such as author, title, and volume number.

Also known as Backstrip Label.

Label Laminate

A label laminate consists of facestock, adhesive and silicone-coated backing paper (liner).

Label Paper

Paper that is manufactured to meet the requirements of that particular type of label. Generally label paper will have an adhesive coating applied to it that is a pressure sensitive or remoistenable. Some label stock is not precoated with an adhesive coating and the adhesive is applied in the process of attaching the label to the object.

Label Stock

Pressure-sensitive laminate from which labels are produced, usually refers to roll stock.

Label/Form Combination

A label/form combination is the process of combining a label and form as one unit. There are several types of label/form combinations, such as blown on labels, dual web label/forms and integrated labels.

Labeling Machine

A device used to dispense a pressure sensitive label, with the liner removed, and also applies it to a product.

Labels, Butt-Cut

Pressure sensitive labels that share a common cut line and have no space between them.

Labels, Die-Cut

Pressure sensitive labels that are kiss-cut and formatted to include space between each label.

Labels, Fan-Folded

Labels manufactured in a continuous format that are folded in a zig-zag configuration.

Lacquer

A clear resin/solvent coating applied to the surface of the paper to add protection from grease and water. It also provides the paper a heat sealing property and gives it a glossy finish.

Lacquered

Coated or sprayed with lacquer

Lading

Refers to the freight shipped; the contents of a shipment.

Laid

Term describes the finish imparted by a dandy roll which features wires parallel to its axis that impress the paper during manufacture to produce a permanent watermark. The wires which produce the laid effect are situated parallel on the dandy roll and are not interwoven with the traverse chain wires which encircle the dandy roll’s circumference, meaning the cross direction. CLASSIC® Laid Papers.

Laid Dandy Roll

A dandy roll made for the purpose of imparting a laid finish to paper. It is composed of wires running parallel to the roll’s axis and attached to the frame by evenly spaced chain wires that encircle the circumference of the roll. The laid wires are affixed on top of the transverse chain wires, rather than being wove over and under them.

Laid Finish

A laid finish has the appearance of translucent lines running horizontally and vertically in the paper. It is produced during the papermaking process with a special roller that creates the pattern in the wet paper.

Laid In

Pages or other paper present in the book that are not glued or sewn in.

Laid Lines

Lines seen in a laid sheet which are the result of the design on the dandy roll.

Laid Paper

The closely “lined” appearance in the finish of writing and printing papers created during manufacture by a dandy roll.

Laid Wires

Parallel wires in a dandy roll that produce the laid watermark and run in the cross grain direction.

Laid Writing

Paper used for writing and correspondence purposes that has a laid mark.

Laminant

An adhesive material used to combine films, plastics, foils, papers and other such materials by forming a bond between them.

Laminate
  1. To bond a plastic film to a printed sheet with heat and pressure for protection and give it a glossy finish.

  2. The fusing of one or more layers of paper to acheive the desired thickness and quality.

Laminate Proof

A type of proof that uses laminate powdered toner to create a color image, such as Matchprint and Cromalin® proofs.

Laminated

A thin layer of plastic that is adhered to another material, such as cloth or paper.

Laminated Timber

Product which is laminated by gluing two or more timber pieces together

Laminating Base Paper

Saturating base kraft paper and phenolic resin impregnated paper.

LAN

Local Area Network

A network connecting multiple computers within a single location that allows workers to share and print files and exchange e-mail.

Landscape

Printing a page so that when positioned for reading the width is greater than the height.

Lap

The slightly extended areas of printing surfaces in color plates, which make for easier registration of color.

Lap Register

A register achieved by overlaying a narrow strip of the second color over the first color, at the points of joining.

Large Crown Octavo

a hardback format with identical measurements to those of B format paperbacks, 198 × 129 mm sewn (126 mm unsewn).

Large Paper Edition

An edition of a book with pages in a larger format than those of the regular edition.

Typically these are Limited or De-Luxe Editions of a work.

Large Print Edition

Designed for people with poor eyesight, the words are printed in a larger size than in the regular edition.

Large-Format Camera

Camera that makes negatives 4 × 5 or larger.

Laser

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. An intense beam of light that is capable of transmitting images by means of digital data.

Laser Bond

Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser printers.

Laser Compatible

Papers engineered with special properties that assure smooth and consistent performance on laser equipment. All Fox River script and writing papers are laser guaranteed as part of the TechReadyTM definition.

Laser Die-Cutting

Technically not a die-cut, laser die-cutting is an extension of the photographic process. A metal template made from black-and-white artwork performs the role of a film negative. Wherever there is a hole in the template, a laser beam passes through and vaporizes the exposed area of the paper. Extremely precise, lasers enable the creation of amazingly intricate patterns with ease.

Laser Diode

Injection Laser, Diode Laser

A point light source or light emission aperture driven by laser beams.

Laser Engraving

A paper cutting technique whereby laser technology is utilized to cut away certain unmasked areas of the paper. The cutting is a result of the exposure of the paper to the laser ray, which actually evaporates the paper.

Laser Forms

Single sheet forms that have been manufacture to meet the specifications required to be printed in a laser printer. Form must be printed on laser compatible paper and printed with heat resistant inks.

Laser Imagesetter

Output device in which a light beam emitted by a laser light source is directed onto a photo-sensitive material via optics and/or mirrors. Single dots (spots) are produced by means of upstream on/off switches that are synchronized with the deflecting unit, the correlation of the spots is driven by a software program or a page description language as well as the laser imagesetter’s driver.

Laser Labels

Labels specifically engineered to run smoothly through laser printers.

Laser or Foil Stamp:

Applying metallic or colored foil imprints to vinyl, leather or paper surfaces.

Laser Paper

Paper that has been manufactured to provide optimal performance when running through a laser printer or copier. It has low moisture content to prevent the paper from curling when exposed to the high heat from the laser printers.

Laser Printer

A printer that uses a laser beam to create an image on a drum by the use of electrostatic printing technology. The image is created from digital files.

Laser Printing

A printing process where the printed image is created by the use of digital files which are sent to a laser printer.

Laser Reader

A device in an electronic inserter which reads OMR characters and bar codes by using a laser beam.

Laser Scanner

An optical reading device that uses a laser light beam to record images.

Laser Sheet Labels

Laser sheet labels are loose single sheets that have been manufactured to meet the necessary requirements to run through an ink jet or laser printer. The laser sheets may contain one label or be multiple labels up.

Laser-imprintable Ink

Ink that will not fade or blister as the paper on which it is printed is used in a laser printer.

Last Colour Down

The last color printed.

Latent Image

The invisible image left by the action of light on photographic film or paper.

The light changes the photosensitive salts to varying degrees depending on the amount of light striking them. When processed, this latent image will become a visible image either in reversed tones (as in a negative) or in positive tones (as in a color slide).

Lateral Reversal

A positive or negative image transposed from left to right as in a mirror reflection of the original.

Latex

An emulsion of rubber or resin particles dispersed in an aqueous medium. A natural or synthetic elastomeric dispersion in an aqueous system.

Latex Paper

Paper manufactured by two major processes; one of which is where latex is incorporated with the fibers in the beater prior to formation of the sheet, and the second of which is where a preformed web of absorbent fiber is saturated with properly compounded latex. The papers are characterized by strength, folding endurance, resistance to penetration by water, flexibility, durability and resistance to abrasion

Latin

Languages based on the Latin alphabet. Examples are English, French, German, Spanish and Italian.

Latitude

The range of exposure within which a film or plate will produce a negative or positive image of satisfactory quality.

Lay

The position of the print on a sheet of paper. Lays (front and side)

The guides or gauges (at front and side) to which paper is fed before being printed or otherwise processed on a machine (for example, folding).

Lay edges – the edges of a sheet, which are laid against the front and side lays. Also known as guide or gripper edge.

Lay Flat

A label material with good non-curling characteristics making it suitable for automatic overwrapping, insertion or any other form of further processing requiring a flat sheet (stay flat).

Laydown Sequence

The order in which the ink colors are printed.

Layout

The process of keylining (paste-up) text and graphics into a format that gives the appearance of the finished product .

Layout Building

Putting together all the elements that make up the pages of a magazine, including copy, headlines, sidebars, tables, charts, artwork, photography, ads, column rules, folio numbers, jump notations, headers and footers, and such.

Layout File

The file created by computer application software which contains all the imported elements and where all the design and layout of a document are performed.

Layout Sheet

A sheet that has guidelines on it to assist in the layout and design process.

LC

Library of Congress

The Library of Congress’ mission is to make its resources available and useful to the Congress and the American people and to sustain and preserve a universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations.

The Library serves as the research arm of Congress and is recognized as the national library of the United States. Its collections comprise the world’s most comprehensive record of human creativity and knowledge.

Open to those above high school age without charge or special permission, it is the world’s largest library and a great resource to scholars and researchers.

Library of Congress

LCD Panel

Liquid Crystal Display on cameras that shows such information as remaining exposures, flash status and aspect ratio selected.

LDAP

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

A protocol for the querying of address directories on the Internet.

Lead Time

The time allotted for delivery of materials ordered from the manufacturer.

Leader

See dot leader.

Leader Characters

Characters, generally periods or dashes, used to fill up the space on a page between listed information at the left and related information to the right of it. An example would be in a table of contents where the page title is listed at the left and its page number is to the right, the leader characters would be placed inbetween.

Leadering

A line of dots or leader characters used to move a reader’’s eye from information on the left side of the page to information on the right side.

Leadin

Another word for ‘deck’. It is used mostly by publications using British English.

Leading

The linespace between successive lines of type, measured from baseline to baseline. The spacing is measured in points.

Leaf

One sheet of paper in a printed publication. The front side of a leaf is one page and the back side is another page.

Leaf Stamping

A metal die, either (flat, or embossed)

Leaflet

A printed sheet folded vertically in the center to produce four pages.

Leased Line

A private line used by an organization to carry data communications transmissions and has a high bandwidth (e.g. T1, T2, T3).

Leather Bound

A book that is bound and covered in leather.

Leatherette

An imitation of grained leather, produced from a strong, machine-glazed base paper. Many small prayer books, for example, are leatherette. See also imitation leather.

Leaves

The sheets of paper that make up a book. A page is one side of a leaf.

Lede

The introductory paragraph of an article designed to hook the reader into reading the rest of the story.

Ledger Paper

A paper that is heavier and stiffer than a bond paper and most commonly manufactured in a weight range of 24# to 36#. It is more durable and capable of standing up to excessive handling.

Ledgit

A label or memo slip projecting from a book’s pages.

Legacy System

An older application that performs necessary functions, such as managing databases for organizations. These systems are difficult to maintain, and use outdated technology. Some newer software products can work with legacy applications, or at the very least, import information out of them.

Legal Deposit

The legal requirement for publishers to deposit with the British Library and the five copyright libraries (University Library in Cambridge, the Bodleian Library in Oxford and the national libraries of Scotland, Wales and Ireland) a single copy of each publication.

Legal Size

A paper size measuring 8-1/2 inches by 14 inches, which corresponds to the standard size of legal briefs.

Legend

Refers to the descriptive words or sentences placed under an illustration. Also called the caption.

Legend Plate

A small tag, often times engraved, that is affixed to a machine or other object that contains instructions, warnings or mechanical data.

Legging

The stringing out of a P.S. adhesive. This can occur when the label is being removed from a substrate or release liner or when the matrix is being removed during die cutting and stripping.

Legibility

The ease at which words and characters can be recognized.

Lemerciergravure

A photo-mechanical process perfected by the French printers Lemercier.

Length

The ability of an ink to flow.

Length Packaged

Package of timber consisting of one timber length

Lens

One or more pieces of optical glass or similar material designed to collect and focus rays of light to form a sharp image on the film, paper, or projection screen.

Lens Shade

A collar or hood at the front of a lens that keeps unwanted light from striking the lens and causing image flare. May be attached or detachable, and should be sized to the particular lens to avoid vignetting.

Lens Speed

The largest lens opening (smallest f-number) at which a lens can be set. A fast lens transmits more light and has a larger opening than a slow lens.

Lens-Shutter Camera

A camera with the shutter built into the lens; the viewfinder and picture-taking lens are separate.

Lenticular Printing

A process of creating multi-dimensional, animated or bi-view effects by photographing with an extremely fine screen and placing plastic made up of tiny lenses over the top. Sometimes called xography.

Leporello Fold

See “harmonica fold”.

Less-Than-Full Tray

A tray that contains mail for a single destination that was not preceded by a full tray for that destination. Less-than-full trays may be prepared only if permitted by the standards for the rate claimed.

Letraset

A proprietary name for rub-down or dry transfer lettering used in preparing artwork.

Letter Fold

Two parallel folds create a three panel piece that has both side sections folded inward, one on top of the other. When folded, the piece fits into a business size envelope.

Letter Spacing

The adjustment of the space between letters in a text.

Letter-Size

An envelope that fits an 8 1/2 × 11-inch sheet of paper that has been folded twice.

Letterform

The individual characters in a particular typeface.

Letterhead

The stationery system used by a business or professional organization.

Letterpress

A printing method in which the wrong reading image or type is raised above the surface of the printing plate. The plate is then inked and pressed directly onto the paper, resulting in a right reading image.

Letterpress Bed

The base on which the Form is held when printing by Letterpress.

Letterset

A relief printing technique in which a raised letterpress plate and an intermediate offset blanket are used to imprint the image.

Lettershop

A company that specializes in personalizing, assembling and inserting the elements of a mail package. They will also address, sort, tag and deliver the mailing to the proper postal facility. Also referred to as Mailshop.

Letterspacing

Increasing or decreasing space between characters, in a line of text, to adjust the line-length or to improve the appearance of a line. Letterspacing affects the spacing between all characters opposed to kerning that only affects the spacing between two or three characters

Levant

Elegant and highly polished morocco goatskin leather with a grain-pattern surface.

Levelness

The evenness of a paper determined by the fiber distribution.

Lexan

General Electric Company’s trademark for polycarbonate film.

Lexical

The text or type, as opposed to illustrations.

Lexical Analysis

A set of rules, algorithms, and tools that breakdown text into its definitive parts (i.e., words and phrases).

Libel

Written defamation that causes injury to another person.

Library Binding

A book bound in accordance with the standards of the American Library Association, having strong endpapers, muslin-reinforced end signatures, sewing with four-cord thread, cotton flannel backlining, and covers of Caxton buckram cloth, with round corners.

Library Cloth Cover

Rayon fabric Fastback Hardcover. This is an extremely rugged cover designed for heavy use, such as one might experience in a library or similar setting. Ideal for binding books for heavy use purposes or a traditional look and feel.

Library Edition

Refers to a book supposedly or actually printed on a better quality of paper and with a stronger binding than the standard edition.

It can also refer to an edition, series, or set of books, produced in a uniform format, but this use of the term is more or less obsolete.

Library of Congress

LC

The Library of Congress’ mission is to make its resources available and useful to the Congress and the American people and to sustain and preserve a universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations.

The Library serves as the research arm of Congress and is recognized as the national library of the United States. Its collections comprise the world’s most comprehensive record of human creativity and knowledge.

Open to those above high school age without charge or special permission, it is the world’s largest library and a great resource to scholars and researchers.

Library of Congress

Library of Congress Catalog Card number:

A unique number assigned by the Library of Congress to a given work for cataloging and identification purposes.

Library Picture

A picture taken from an existing library and not specially commissioned.

Library Rate

A discount postal rate for shipping books to or from libraries and educational institutions.

Licence

Subsidiary right usually granted for a fixed term or for a particular usage by the holder of the head contract in a work.

Licensed Font

A font that has a agreement/license when purchased which puts restrictions on its use and generally requires that the font be used one printer only.

Lichtdruck (Ger.)

The first reproduction process used to produce halftone illustrations in books in Germany from 1870 to 1900.

Lift

A stack of paper.

Lift Note (Lift Letter)

A smaller letter, in a direct mail package, used as a last chance to restate the offer. The lift letter is generally written by a different person than the writer of the main letter. It can be by someone of authority in the company or it may be testimonials from other customers.

Lift Tab

Ungummed edge of a label designed to make removal from the release liner easier. Sometimes used with order picking labels.

Lift Truck

See Forklift.

Lift-Ground Aquatint

A form of intaglio printing in which the artists draws with a specially formulated ink on a metal plate. The plate is then covered with an acid resistant ground and immersed in water. The characteristics of the drawing medium (which may be applied with a pen or brush) allow it to dissolve and work through the acid resistant ground. When bitten in acid, the final result resembles pen or brush work.

Ligature

Identical letters written together, such as ff or tt , or letter combinations such as fl or ft that are treated as a single letter.

Light Finishing

Detacking of plate surface by short wavelength UV germicidal light exposure.

Light Gathering

See “dot gain”.

Light Intensity

The amount of light energy transmitted.

Light Meter

(See Exposure meter)

Light Resistance

The ability to resist fading due to exposure to sunlight, ultra violet light and weathering. This applies to pressure sensitive label stocks, plastic materials and inks.

Light Table

A glass topped table or surface which has a light underneath so that the user can see through layers of paper or a negative. It can also be used for tracing or mechanical page layout.

Light-Fastness

Refers to the resistance of inks to the spectrum of natural light. According to the German standard DI 54003/4, the “wool scale” defines eight levels from very low to excellent. Level three moderately light-fast indicates that the ink can be exposed to sunlight for 4 to 8 days in summer and 2 to 4 weeks in winter without any noticeable fading. At the highest level of light-fastness, the ink can withstand exposure to summer sun for more than 18 months.

Lightface

Type having finer strokes than the medium typeface. Not used as frequently as medium.

Lightweight Paper

Paper that is manufactured at a weight that is below what is generally the minimum basis weight for that grade. Lightweight paper reduces the bulk and weight of a product. Using lightweight paper will help keep postage to a minimum on mailing items. They are available in coated and uncoated papers.

Lignin

The “glue” that binds the cells of the tree and creates its structure. This product is removed in the kraft process. Approximately one third of the tree is lignin.

Likesidedness

Noticeably similar side-to-side color and finish of a sheet of paper.

Limitation

A statement of number of copies printed in an edition. See also limited edition.

Limited Edition

An edition that is limited to a certain number of copies, is usually printed and bound luxuriously, and in some cases, may be signed by the author.

The number of copies is given somewhere in the text of the book

Limp Binding

A book that has a flexible cloth, leather, or vellum cover.

In the last quarter of the 18th century and the first quarter of the 19th, limp leather covers were commonly used for books to be carried in the pocket. In the 20th century, the primary use was for cheap, educational, sentimental verse, or devotional books.

Limp Cloth

A book that has a flexible cloth, leather, or vellum cover.

In the last quarter of the 18th century and the first quarter of the 19th, limp leather covers were commonly used for books to be carried in the pocket. In the 20th century, the primary use was for cheap, educational, sentimental verse, or devotional books.

Limp Cover

A book that has a flexible cloth, leather, or vellum cover. In the last quarter of the 18th century and the first quarter of the 19th, limp leather covers were commonly used for books to be carried in the pocket. In the 20th century, the primary use was for cheap, educational, sentimental verse, or devotional books. Also known as limp cloth, limp binding, limp leather, or limp vellum.

Limp Leather

A book that has a flexible cloth, leather, or vellum cover.

In the last quarter of the 18th century and the first quarter of the 19th, limp leather covers were commonly used for books to be carried in the pocket. In the 20th century, the primary use was for cheap, educational, sentimental verse, or devotional books.

Limp Vellum

A book that has a flexible cloth, leather, or vellum cover.

In the last quarter of the 18th century and the first quarter of the 19th, limp leather covers were commonly used for books to be carried in the pocket. In the 20th century, the primary use was for cheap, educational, sentimental verse, or devotional books.

Line Art

In traditional graphic arts, line art refers to pictures that use no halftones techniques and no midtones, just black and white. Also called line copy.

Line Block

A letterpress printing plate made up of solid areas and lines and without tones.

Line Conversion Screen

Piece of film containing line patterns that break light into those patterns as it passes through.

Line Copy

Any copy suitable for reproduction without using a halftone screen.

Line Drawing

A drawing containing no grays or middle tones. In general, any drawing that can be reproduced without the use of halftone techniques.

Line Engraving

Refers to a printing plate (generally for letterpress printing) which is created by etching on the basis of a line original.

Line Gauge

A metal rule used by printers. Divided into Picas it is 72 picas long (11.952in).

Line Gluing

A continuous line of glue that is applied between the parts of a form to hold them together. Line gluing on continuous forms is generally applied in the left and right margin stubs. On unit sets, the line gluing is generally applied in the stub area.

Line Halftone Combination

Also referred to as a combination plate. A plate that has both line copy and halftones on it.

Line Hole Punching

See feed slots.

Line Length

The width of a text line, The line length is generally measured in picas, points or characters.

Line Negative

A negative made from line copy.

Line Original

Single or multi-colored original in which each color is present in a single tonal value. Generally speaking, line originals are used for black/white illustrations, such as drawings.

Line Screen

A transparent screen which has been etched with fine lines. It is used to convert a picture or photograph into a halftone dot pattern so that it can be printed.

Line Spacing
  1. On a form, it is the number of print lines per inch. Generally 6 or 8 for continuous printer, 6 for typewritten and 3 or 4 for handwritten.

  2. In text, it is the spacing from the baseline of one line of text to the next. Also referred to as leading.

Line Speed

The speed at which data is transmitted over a line. Line speed is measured in bits per second.

Line-Haul

Transportation from one city to another as differentiated from local switching service.

Linear Paper

A watermarked sheet with lines to guide the user.

Lineholes

Evenly spaced holes that are punched into the margin of a form, used at the collator to guide the paper through and align each part. On a continuous form, they are also used to guide the form through a continuous printer. On a unit set they are generally trimmed off at the collator.

Linen Finish

A paper finish that resembles linen cloth which is usually produced after the papermaking process as an offline embossing process.

Linen Paper

Paper with a finish that resembles linen cloth.

Linen Strip

A Fastback Super Strip made to resemble the “crash” used in traditional hard cover bookbinding.

Linen Tester

A magnifying glass designed for checking the dot image of a halftone.

Liner

The backer material or carrier sheet of a pressure sensitive material. It protects the adhesive until time of use. Generally has a release coating applied to allow the adhesive to release easily. Also referred to as the backing or release liner.

Linerless Labels

Pressure sensitive labels that do not have a liner. The labels are wound on a roll that has had a release coating applied to the front of the facestock to prevent the adhesive from sticking on the label below.

Lines Per Inch

LPI

  1. A measurement of the number of lines of type in an inch, determined by measuring from baseline to baseline. Example: 6 LPI indicates that 6 lines of type would fit in one inch.

  2. The number of lines of dots per inch in a halftone screen or linescreen. A screen with a higher lpi, such as 200 lpi has many smaller dots which provide finer detail and a sharper image clarity. The LPI of a halftone screen is also called frequency.

Lineshot

Line art to be shot (converted into a negative piece of film) on camera and stripped in.

Lineup Table

A table with an illuminated top used for preparing and checking alignment of page layouts and paste-ups.

Lining

The material which is pasted down on the backbone (spine) of a book to be casebound, after it has been sewn, glued off, and then rounded. It reinforces the glue and helps hold signatures together.

Lining Figures

Numerals that align on the baseline and at the top.

Link
  1. A connection between two points. The connected points could be cells, documents, files, records or Web pages.

  2. In desktop publishing, it is the joining of two or more text boxes so that the text will automatically flow from one box to the next.

Linked Ring

The Linked Ring Brotherhood was an organization of photographers founded in London in 1892 by Henry Peach Robinson. Members, including Stieglitz, Coburn, Evans and Annan, held annual exhibitions called “salons,” a name they borrowed from the world of painting in an attempt to demonstrate their artistic purpose.

Although their aesthetics varied, the members of the Brotherhood were united by their desire to further “the development of the highest form of art of which photography is capable.”

Linoleum Cut

A relief print carved into linoleum rather than wood.

Linotype

The machine patented by Ottmar Mergenthaler in 1882, which was the first fully functional line composing machine and revolutionized the entire printing industry, in particular newspaper production.

Used for the first time by the New York Tribune newspaper in 1886, the Linotype remained basically unchanged in its basic functions, despite numerous improvements, until it was replaced by electronic typesetting procedures.

Using a keyboard similar to a typewriter, it assembles the metal matrices of letters and other characters and the interlaying spaces to form lines of print which are automatically cast using a lead alloy.

Lines of print created in this way can then be compiled into text columns. One of the Linotype’s major innovations was the fact that the matrices could be reused, the machine automatically sorting and assigning these to their stock positions using a mechanical coding system.

Lint

Small fuzzy particles in paper.

Linux

Refers to any Unix-like computer operating system which uses the Linux kernel.

It is one of the most prominent examples of open source development and free software as well as user generated software; its underlying source code is available for anyone to use, modify, and redistribute freely.

Initially developed and used primarily by individual enthusiasts on personal computers, Linux has since gained the support of corporations such as IBM, Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, and Novell, Inc., and has risen to prominence as an operating system for servers; eight of the ten most reliable internet hosting companies now run Linux on their web servers.

Linux has been more widely ported to different computing platforms than any other operating system.

It is used in devices ranging from supercomputers to mobile phones, and is gaining popularity in the personal computer market.

GNU/Linux

LiOn

A lithium-ion non-rechargeable battery that is considerably more expensive than other batteries. They will provide about 2 hours or more of use and have a shelf life of up to 10 years

Lip

The allowance for overlap of one-half of the open side edge of a folded section, needed for sewn and saddlestitch binding, for feeding the sections; also called lap.

Liquid Packaging Board,

LPB

Plastic-coated board (FBB, SBS, SUS and CKB) used for the packaging of liquid foods, such as milk or juice, and often high-barrier-coated or foil-laminated for long-life beverages

List

All of the titles a book publisher has in print and available for sale.

List Broker

An individual or company that specializes in handling the selection of an appropriate mailing list for the mailer to buy or rent.

List Cleaning

Updating the mailing lists by making address corrections and eliminates obsolete address.

List Compiler

An individual or company specializing in compiling lists from records of information, such as product warranties or registrations, birth records, property transfers, surveys and membership registrations.

List Criteria

The specifications of a list that differentiates one from the other. The specifications are what categorize the names for the list.

List Enhancement

Adding information, about the customer, to the mailing list to make it more valuable. The additional information can come from other lists or databases.

List Price

The suggested retail selling price of a book, as opposed to the net price or discount price, which is the price at which bookstores or distributors purchase the book from the publisher. Also called the cover price.

Listserv

A program that sends messages automatically to a pre-assigned distribution list.

Literary Agent

A person or company looking after the interests of author clients and managing the exploitation of rights in an author’s work.

This includes submission of a book to publishers, perhaps in the form of an auction, negotiating a contract, collecting money due, and dealing with other rights not held by the publisher, such as (in many cases) broadcasting and film rights.

Literary Market Place:

Publication by Bowker listing US publishers and other book trade information. An international edition is also published.

Lithograph

An illustration printed from stone, zinc, or other material.

Lithographic Image

An ink-receptive image on the lithographic press plate; the design or drawing on stone or a metal plate.

Lithographic Papers

See offset papers.

Lithographic Printing

Refers to all printing processes in which the printing areas of the printing plate lie on the same or virtually the same plane as the non-printing parts.

This technology takes advantage of the fact that it is possible to create both oleophilic (oil-friendly) and hydrophilic (water-friendly) areas on the printing surface.

When the plate is inked, only the oleophilic areas retain the ink. The first lithographic process was stone printing, invented by Aloys Senefelder in 1796.

Offset printing is based on this technology.

Lithography

1.Invented by Alois Senefelder in 1789, a method for producing printing forms for stone printing. Using special ink or chalk, the printing copy is transferred directly onto a smooth-ground block of carbonate of lime (calcium carbonate – CaCO3).

The stone block is moistened before being inked up with oil-based printing ink. The printing areas then take up the oil-based ink, while the unchanged limestone repels it. The word lithographs (lithos for short) is also used colloquially for copy for offset printing (screened images, line engravings).

2.Lithography refers to a method of printing whereby the image areas, which are neither raised nor depressed, attract ink and the non-image areas repel ink. Most lithography is offset lithography in which the image is transferred from the plate to a rubber blanket, and then printed (offset) from the blanket onto the paper.

Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession

In 1905 Edward Steichen, dissatisfied with the exhibition opportunities in New York, proposed to Stieglitz that they open a gallery in the small apartment next to his residence at 291 Fifth Avenue. The purpose of this gallery would be not only to exhibit the work of the Photo-Secession, but also to show the work of the modern artists emerging from Europe.

From 1907 through 1917, the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession – better known as 291 (from its street address) – staged some of the most important early exhibitions of modern art held in America, featuring artists like Auguste Rodin, Henri Matisse, Paul Cezanne, Pablo Picasso, Constantin Brancusi, and other European modernists. In most cases, these were the first showings of their work in New York.

Live Area

Alternate term for Image area.

Live Label

An EAS label that is in an activate state which would set off an alarm when detected by an EAS detection system.

Live Matter

The components of a document that change from page to page, such as the main text and graphics. This differs from repeated matter, such as running heads, which remains the same on each page.

Live Stamp/Live Postage

A normal stamp, as opposed to meter postage or postage imprints.

Load on End

When roll paper is loaded so that the end or flat side of the roll is on the floor.

Load on Side

When roll paper is loaded so that the rounded portion of the roll is on the floor. Roll is standing up in rolling position.

Local Area Network

LAN

A network connecting multiple computers within a single location that allows workers to share and print files and exchange e-mail.

Localized Watermark

A watermark that has its design positioned on the dandy roller so that when applied to the paper, it will fall in the same location after it has been cut off as individual sheets.

Lockup Space

On a press, this is the space across the sheet that is unprintable due to the areas on the plate and blanket cylinders that is needed to lock the plate and blanket on the cylinder. This space is generally 3/8” to 1/2”.

Log Handling, Log Sorting

Sorting of cut off or fallen trunks of trees

Logging

Recording of computer activity used for statistical purposes as well as for backup and recovery. Log files are created for such purposes as storing incoming text dialog, error and status messages and transaction details.

Login

A means of identifying users to gain access to specific computers. This usually includes the user ID name and password.

Logo

A graphic representation of a company name, trademark or product, typically designed for recognizability, memorability and market differentiation. The meaning of a logo is defined by the quality of the thing it represents, not the other way around.

Logotype
  1. An organization’’s identifying symbol. Also referred to as logo.

  2. In typography, two or more often used combinations of letters. Although they are not joined together, they are still treated as one character for added convenience in composition and to provide character kerning.

London International Book Fair

Held annually in the Olympia halls in London in March, this fair has grown rapidly as a meeting place for all those involved in the book trade in the UK and Europe.

Long Fibre Pulp

Pulp produced from softwood (softwood pulp)

Long Fold

To fold a sheet lengthwise in the direction of the grain.

Long Grain

See “grain long, grain short”.

Long Ink

An ink that has good flow on ink rollers of a press. If the ink is too long, it breaks up into filaments on the press, and causes flying as on a newspaper press.

Longevity

Degree of permanence.

Look-Through

The structural appearance of the sheet of paper when viewed by transmitted light. See Opacity.

Loop Stitch

To saddle stitch with staples that are also loops which slip over rings of binders.

Loose

Refers to the condition of a book; the text block is coming loose from the binding at the hinges.

Loose Back

A popular style of binding, in which the spine binding material is not glued to the binding edge of the sheets.

Loose Perforation

A perforation that is easy to tear.

Loose Proof

Proof of one color separation.

Loose Register

Color that fits “loosely”; positioning (register) is not critical.

Loose-Leaf

The binding of individual sheets of paper in an exchangeable form, for pages to be added, removed, or relocated in the book.

Loose-leaf bindings are used wherever records of repeatedly changing information must be kept. Instruction manuals, catalogs, and accounting forms are often loose-leaf bound.

Loose-leaf Binding

Holes are punched into the sheets of pages so they can be inserted into either ring or post binders to form the booklet. Standard types of loose leaf binding are either 3-ring binders or plastic post binders.

Loss of Tack

When an adhesive loses its adhesive strength and does not have the initial tack that it should.

Lossless Compression

A method of compressing data that rearranges the data so that it is more compact and allows it to be decompressed without loosing any information. There is a distinct limit to the amount of compression that can be achieved.

Lossy Compression

A method of compressing data by discarding repetitive and useless information to decrease the file size. The discarded data is lost and can not be brought back.

Lot

A flat fee, in reference to the pricing of a product or service.

Loupe

A magnified eyepiece used to inspect copy, film, proofs, plates and printing.

Low Bulk

Refers to papers somewhat thinner than the usual papers of the same weight, having a smooth surface, and which is a “thin” sheet.

Low Folio Binding Lap

The off-center folding of a signature face to backbone that uses the lower page numbers of the signature for the binding lap. The binding lap should be 3/8” and allows the signature to be opened to the center when saddle stitching. A Low Folio Lap should be jogged to the foot to prevent reverse lap feeding.

Low Moisture Absorbency

Reduced water uptake of wood.

Low Resolution Stepping

LRS

A step and repeat workflow file format for editing programs which provides a more efficient process for automating the duplication of a single image two or more times on press plates. During the RIPing process, a high-resolution single element (cut marks, fold marks, images, etc) is used to automatically create a low-resolution file to be used for the step and repeat functions in the editing program, conserving file space and increasing processing speeds. When the file is exported to a PostScript digital front end (DFE) system, a conversion occurs on the fly with the low-resolution elements being replaced by links to the RIPed, high-resolution file and file elements.

Low-Key Picture

A continuous tone photo made up of predominantly shadow areas of the same tone.

Lower Case

The small letters of the alphabet.

Loyalty Programs

Incentive programs, including gifts, discounts and preferential treatment, offered to repeat or bulk sales customers.

LPB

Liquid Packaging Board

Plastic-coated board (FBB, SBS, SUS and CKB) used for the packaging of liquid foods, such as milk or juice, and often high-barrier-coated or foil-laminated for long-life beverages

LPI

Lines per inch

  1. A measurement of the number of lines of type in an inch, determined by measuring from baseline to baseline. Example: 6 LPI indicates that 6 lines of type would fit in one inch.

  2. The number of lines of dots per inch in a halftone screen or linescreen. A screen with a higher lpi, such as 200 lpi has many smaller dots which provide finer detail and a sharper image clarity. The LPI of a halftone screen is also called frequency.

LRS

Low Resolution Stepping

A step and repeat workflow file format for editing programs which provides a more efficient process for automating the duplication of a single image two or more times on press plates.

During the RIPing process, a high-resolution single element (cut marks, fold marks, images, etc) is used to automatically create a low-resolution file to be used for the step and repeat functions in the editing program, conserving file space and increasing processing speeds.

When the file is exported to a PostScript digital front end (DFE) system, a conversion occurs on the fly with the low-resolution elements being replaced by links to the RIPed, high-resolution file and file elements.

LTL or LCL

Less Than Truck Load.

When shipping less than a full truckload of product a truck will pick up product then go to a warehouse. The product will be unloaded and reloaded onto another truck and then possibly repeat this process adding product to the truckload as it gets closer to its final destination. This method of shipping takes more time but is more cost effective. Also see Truckload.

LTRS

###

A code used on mail container labels that identifies the contents as letter-size mail.

Lumbeck System

Polyvinyl acetate adhesive binding system used for brochures, books and other printing materials, in which the ends of a pile of sheets are fanned out.

After clamping, the leaves are fanned out in one direction and coated with glue. This process is then repeated on the other side.

The process is named after the bookbinder Emil Lumbeck (1886-1979).

Lumber

Wood (= usu sawn timber) used for or suitable for building (e.g. a house or boat) or for carpentry or joinery

Lumen

One lumen is the amount of light emitted by a light source with a luminous intensity of one candela (cd) into the spheridian unit of one steradian (sr quotient of the superficial content of a segment of a spherical surface and the square of the associated radius of the sphere).

The lumen unit is now mainly used in a form defined by the American National Standards Institute (called the “ANSI lumen”). To this end, the average of the brightness values measured at nine points on an illuminated surface is taken and the luminous flux determined on the basis of a table published by the Institute.

Luminence Signal-to-Noise Ratio

This is a measure of how pure the video signal is (the monochrome or black-and-white portion of the picture).

Tape with good luminence signal-to-noise ratios has a sharper, clearer image.

This property has even greater importance on multiple generation copies.

Luminosity

A value corresponding to the brightess of color.

LW

h3.

Line work.

LWC

LWC, HWC, MFC, MWC, SC, ULWC

Standard international acronyms for weights and grades of papers used in rotary offset and letterpress printing.

Coated stock can be identified HWC (heavy-weight coated), MWC (medium-weight coated), LWC (lightweight coated), or ULWC (ultra-lightweight coated).

All are wood pulp-based, but available in many varieties. MFC (machine-finished coated) paper is made primarily from ground wood pulp, has a grammage of 48 to 80 gsm, and may be high volume.

LWC paper is particularly lightweight stock for use on rotary offset machines. SC (supercalendered) paper is an uncoated wood pulp stock based mainly on ground wood and recycled content.

It features an additional finish applied by a separate supercalender.

Lycos

A Web search engine.


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