Glossary of Printing Terms:#

1-Bit Color

The number of colors per pixel that a particular graphics file can store. Each pixel is represented by one bit, which is either black or white.

10 Base-T

Standard Ethernet which transmits at 10 Mbps.

100 Base-T

Fast Ethernet which transmits at 100 Mbps and requires Fiber Optics transmission.

100PC

Only 100% post-consumer fibers are used to manufacture the sheet.

No new trees are consumed.

12mo

A book that is up to 7” tall.

Also see DuoDecimo.

16mo

A book that is up to 6” tall.

Also see Sextodecimo.

24-Bit Color

True Color systems use 24 bits per pixel, allowing them to display 16.7 million different colors per pixel.

24mo

A book that is up to 5” tall.

3.5 inch Floppy Disk

An inexpensive removable storage device which is easy to use and compatible with almost every system. Capacity is limited – generally 1.44 MB at a time.

30PC

30% post-consumer fibers are used to manufacture the sheet, meeting EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) guidelines for recycled papers.

32-Bit Color

Color systems use 32 bits (8 bits x 4 channels-CMYK) per pixel.

32mo

A book that is up to 5” tall.

48mo

A book that is up to 4” tall.

4to

A book that is up to 12” tall.

Also see Quarto.

50/50

50% bamboo fibers and 50% post-consumer fibers make up the sheet. Bamboo is the optimum alternative fiber, tree-free choice in fibers. The bamboo is harvested on farms, specifically for manufacturing purposes. No bamboo is removed from wildlife areas.

56K Line

A telephone circuit on copper wire using 56Kbps capacity for data or voice traffic.

64K Line

A telephone circuit on copper wire using 64Kbps capacity for data or voice traffic.

64mo

A book that is up to 3” tall.

8-Bit Color/Grayscale

In 8-bit color mode, the color monitor uses 8 bits for each pixel, making it possible to display 2 to the 8th power (256) different colors or shades of gray.

8vo

Refers to the size of a Book; the most common book size since the early 17th century, an octavo book averages about 6” x 9”.

The term originally referred to the number of folds (8) in a standard book-printing sheet, but it now commonly refers to size.

Also see Octavo.

.ac

ccTLD for Ascension Island

.ad
  1. ccTLD for The Principality of Andorra

  2. Increasingly being marketed by advertising agencies

.ae

ccTLD for The United Arab Emirates

.aero

Aeroplane

A generic top-level domain gTLD used on the Internet’s Domain Name System.

It is the first gTLD based on a single industry, and is reserved for aviation-related businesses.

It was created in 2002 and is operated by SITA. There is also a Dot Aero Council created and controlled by SITA, which SITA supposedly consults on .aero policies.

The .aero domain is reserved for companies, organizations, associations, government agencies, and individuals in aviation and related industries.

Currently, two-letter codes under .aero are reserved for airlines according to the IATA Airline Designators, while three-letter codes are reserved for airports, according to the IATA airport codes.

.af

ccTLD for Afghanistan

.ag

ccTLD for Antigua and Barbuda

.ai

ccTLD for Anguilla

.aiff

Audio Interchange File Format/r/n/r/nA sound file extension used on PCs.

.al

ccTLD for The Republic of Albania

.am
  1. ccTLD for The Republic of Armenia

  2. Most often used for AM radio stations

.an

ccTLD for The Netherlands Antilles

.ao

ccTLD for Angola

.aq

ccTLD for Antarctica

.ar

ccTLD for The Argentine Republic

.arpa

An Internet top-level domain TLD used exclusively for Internet-infrastructure purposes.

The .arpa TLD was originally intended to be a temporary measure to facilitate the transition to the Domain Name System.

The ARPANET was the predecessor to the Internet established by the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), and when the Domain Name System was introduced in 1985, ARPANET host names were initially converted to domain names by adding .arpa to the end.

Hostnames in other networks were also sometimes converted to pseudo-domain-style addresses by adding endings such as .uucp and .bitnet, though these were never added to the Internet root as formal TLDs.

Domain names of this form were rapidly phased out by replacing them with domain names using the other, more informative, TLDs.

However, deleting .arpa once it had served its transitional purpose proved to be impractical, because in-addr.arpa was used for reverse DNS lookup for IP addresses.

For example the IP address 145.97.39.155 is mapped to a host name by issuing a DNS query for the PTR record for the special host name 155.39.97.145.in-addr.arpa.

.as

ccTLD for American Samoa

.asia

A generic top-level domain proposed by the DotAsia Organization, with the back-end registry to be operated by Afilias.

.at

ccTLD for The Republic of Austria

.au
  1. ccTLD for The Commonwealth of Australia/r/n/r/n2. A sound file extension used on PCs
.aw

ccTLD for Aruba

.ax

ccTLD for Ã…land Islands

.az

ccTLD for The Republic of Azerbaijan

.ba

ccTLD for Bosnia and Herzegovina

.bb

ccTLD for Barbados

.bd

ccTLD for The People’s Republic of Bangladesh

.be

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Belgium

.bf

ccTLD for Burkina Faso

.bg

ccTLD for The Republic of Bulgaria

.bh

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Bahrain

.bi

ccTLD for The Republic of Burundi

.biz

Business

Ageneric top-level domain TLD intended for domains to be used by businesses; the name is a phonetic spelling of the first syllable of “business.”

It was created to relieve some of the demand for the finite domain names available in the .com top-level domain, and to provide an alternative to businesses whose preferred .com domain name had already been registered by another party.

There are no specific legal or geographic qualifications to register a .biz domain name, except that it must be for “bona fide business or commercial use” (i.e. no personal or “soap box” sites, and no cybersquatting), and the usual legal remedies for trademark infringement are applicable.

It was created in 2001 along with several others as the first batch of new gTLDs approved by ICANN following the boom in interest in the internet in the 1990s.

It is administered by Neulevel.

.bj

ccTLD for The Republic of Benin

.bm

ccTLD for The Bermuda Islands or The Somers Isles

.bn

ccTLD for The State of Brunei

.bo

ccTLD for The Republic of Bolivia

.br

ccTLD for The Federative Republic of Brazil

.bs

ccTLD for The Commonwealth of The Bahamas

.bt

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Bhutan

.bv

ccTLD for Bouvet Island, ALso historically known as Liverpool Island or Lindsay Island

.bw

ccTLD for The Republic of Botswana

.by

ccTLD for Belarus

.bz

ccTLD for Belize

.ca

ccTLD for Canada

.cat

.cat TLD is a generic domain, that is, not defined in terms of a territory like the ccTLDs.

Its policy has been developed by ICANN and Fundació puntCAT.

It was approved in September 2005.

It is intended to be used to highlight Catalan language and culture

.cc
  1. ccTLD for The Territory of Cocos and Keeling Islands

  2. Administered by VeriSign through a subsidiary company eNIC, which promotes it for international registration as “the next .com

.cd
  1. ccTLD for The Democratic Republic of Congo

  2. Increasingly marketed by CD merchants and file sharing sites

.cf

ccTLD for The Central African Republic

.cg

ccTLD for The Republic of the Congo

.ch

ccTLD for Switzerland

.ci

ccTLD for The République de Côte d’Ivoire, also known as the Ivory Coast

.ck

ccTLD for The Cook Islands

.cl

ccTLD for The Republic of Chile

.cm

ccTLD for The Republic of Cameroon

.cn

ccTLD for The People’s Republic of China

.co

ccTLD for The Republic of Colombia

.com

Commercial

A generic top-level domain gTLD used on the Internet’s Domain Name System.

It was one of the original top-level domains, established in January 1985, and has grown to be the largest TLD in use.

It is currently operated by VeriSign. It is consistently pronounced as a word, dot-com, and has entered the common language this way.

Although .com domains are officially intended to designate commercial entities (others such as government agencies or educational institutions have different top-level domains assigned to them), there has been no restriction on who can register .com domains since the mid-1990s.

The opening of the .com registry to the public coincided with the commercialization and popularization of the Internet, and .com quickly became the most common top-level domain for websites. Many companies which flourished in the period between 1997-2001 (the time known as the “dot-com bubble”) went so far as to incorporate .com into the company name; these became known as dot-coms or dot-com companies.

This naming practice has reduced in frequency since 2001, however, due to a backlash against this boom and its subsequent bust

The introduction of .biz in 2001, which is restricted to businesses, has had little impact on the popularity of .com.

Although companies anywhere in the world can register .com domains, many countries have a second-level domain with a similar purpose under their own ccTLD.

Such second-level domains are usually of the form .com.xx or .co.xx, where xx is the ccTLD. Brazil (.com.br), Japan (.co.jp), New Zealand (.co.nz), India (.com.in), the People’s Republic of China (.com.cn), and the United Kingdom (.co.uk) are all examples.

Many noncommercial sites, such as those of nonprofit organizations or governments, use .com addresses.

Some consider this to be contrary to the domain’s original purpose and might say that a .org, .gov, or other more specific TLD might be more appropriate for such sites.

However, many organizations prefer the recognizability of a .com domain to a less familiar one.

As well, the original purposes of many of the top level domains have become irrelevant without restrictions on registrations.

Registrations are processed via registrars accredited by ICANN ; internationalized domain names are also accepted.

.coop

Cooperatives

A generic top-level domain intended for the use of cooperatives.

It was a part of ICANN’s announcement in late 2000 of a phased release of seven new generic top-level domains gTLDs intended in part to take the pressure off the overcrowded .com domain.

It was backed by a coalition of interest groups, was developed by Poptel in the UK and became operational on January 30, 2002.

.coop is sponsored top-level domain and restricted to those who meet specified criteria: cooperative-type organizations or a wholly owned subsidiary.

Its sponsor is DotCooperation LLC (also known as dotCoop), which was created as a subsidiary of the American NCBA to operate the TLD.

Registrations are processed via accredited registrars.

.cr

ccTLD for The Republic of Costa Rica

.cs

ccTLD for The State Union Serbia and Montenegro

.cu

ccTLD for The Republic of Cuba

.cv

ccTLD for The Republic of Cape Verde

.cx

ccTLD for The Territory of Christmas Island

.cy

ccTLD for The Republic of Cyprus

.cz

ccTLD for The Czech Republic

.de

ccTLD for The Federal Republic of Germany

.dj

ccTLD for The Republic of Djibouti

.dk

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Denmark

.dm

ccTLD for The Commonwealth of Dominica

.do

ccTLD for The Dominican Republic

.dz

ccTLD for The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

.ec

ccTLD for The Republic of Ecuador

.edu

Education

The generic top-level domain for educational institutions, primarily those in the United States.

Created in January 1985 as one of the first top-level domains, .edu was originally intended for educational institutions anywhere in the world.

With few exceptions, however, only those in the United States registered such domains, while educational institutions in other countries usually used domain names under the appropriate country code TLD.

In some countries a second-level domain is used to indicate an educational institutions (e.g. .edu.mx in Mexico, .edu.au in Australia, .ac.uk and .sch.uk in the United Kingdom) and in others only the country code is used (e.g. in Canada and Germany).

In Germany, the second-level domain often has a prefix indicating the kind of institution (uni for Universitat, fh for Fachhochschule, for instance www.uni-erfurt.de and www.fh-erfurt.de) or, if there several institutions of the same type, the abbreviation of the institutions name (for instance www.fu-berlin.de, www.tu-berlin.de and www.hu-berlin.de for the three Berlin universities).

Examples of non-US .edu domain is the French polytechnique.edu, the Belgian solvay.edu, the Swedish korteboskolan.edu, Kosovo uni-pr.edu or the Indian nist.edu.

Many institutions whose primary sites are located in local second-level domains run mirror sites in the .edu domain, such as oxford.edu mirroring ox.ac.uk.

.ee

ccTLD for The Republic of Estonia

.eg

ccTLD for Egypt

.eh

ccTLD for Western Sahara

.er

ccTLD for Eritrea (East Africa)

.es

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Spain

.et

ccTLD for The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

.eu

ccTLD for The European Union

Made up of Twenty-Seven Member States

  1. Austria

  2. Belgium

  3. Bulgaria

  4. Cyprus

  5. Czech Republic

  6. Denmark

  7. Estonia

  8. Finland

  9. France

  10. Germany

  11. Greece

  12. Hungary

  13. Ireland

  14. Italy

  15. Latvia

  16. Lithuania

  17. Luxembourg

  18. Malta

  19. Netherlands

  20. Poland

  21. Portugal

  22. Romania

  23. Slovakia

  24. Slovenia

  25. Spain

  26. Sweden

  27. United Kingdom

.fi

ccTLD for The Republic of Finland

.fj

ccTLD for The Republic of the Fiji Islands

.fk

ccTLD for The Falkland Islands

.fm
  1. ccTLD for The Federated States of Micronesia

  2. Most often used for FM radio stations

.fo

ccTLD for The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands

.fr

ccTLD for France or The French Republic

.ga

ccTLD for The Gabonese Republic or Gabon

.gb

ccTLD for The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

.gd

ccTLD for Grenada

.ge

ccTLD for Sakartvelo/Georgia

.gf

ccTLD for French Guiana

.gg
  1. ccTLD for The Bailiwick of Guernsey

  2. Most often used by the gaming and gambling industry, particularly in relation to horse racing gee-gee

.gh

ccTLD for The Republic of Ghana

.gi

ccTLD for Gibraltar

.gl

ccTLD for Greenland

.gm

ccTLD for Republic of The Gambia

.gn

ccTLD for Republic of Guinea

.gov

Government

The generic top-level domain used by the United States federal and local government.

It was one of the original top-level domains, established in January 1985.

The U.S. is the only country that has a government-specific top-level domain in addition to its ccTLD.

Some U.S. federal agencies use .fed.us rather than .gov.

The Department of Defense and its subsidiary organizations use .mil.

Other countries typically use a second-level domain for this purpose, e.g., .gov.au for Australia, .govt.nz for New Zealand, (NZ), .gov.uk for the United Kingdom, .gc.ca for Canada, .gouv.fr for France and .guv.ro1 for Romania.

Since the United States controls the .gov TLD, it would be impossible for another country to create a domain ending in .gov, for example .jp.gov.

Some U.S. governmental entities use other domains, such as the use of .com domains by the United States Postal Service (usps.com) and the United States Army’s recruitment website (goarmy.com, this trend is repeated at the recruitment websites of the other branches of the U.S. Military).

Internet purists consider these usages to be improper, as these are governmental or military entities rather than commercial ones.

.gp

ccTLD for Guadeloupe

.gq

ccTLD for The Republic of Equatorial Guinea

.gr

ccTLD for Greece/The Hellenic Republic

.gs

ccTLD for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

.gt

ccTLD for The Republic of Guatemala

.gu

ccTLD for The Territory of Guam

.gw

ccTLD for The Republic of Guinea-Bissau

.gy

ccTLD for The Co-operative Republic of Guyana

.hk

ccTLD for The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

.hm

ccTLD for Heard Island and McDonald Islands (HIMI)

.hn

ccTLD for Honduras

.hr

ccTLD for The Republic of Croatia

.ht

ccTLD for The Republic of Haiti

.hu

ccTLD for The Republic of Hungary

.id

ccTLD for The Republic of Indonesia

.ie

ccTLD for The Republic of Ireland

.il

ccTLD for The State of Israel

.im

ccTLD for The Isle of Man

.in
  1. ccTLD for The Republic of India

  2. Widely used in the internet industry.

.info

Informative

A generic top-level domain intended for informative websites, although its use is not restricted.

It was a part of ICANN’s highly publicized announcement, in late 2000, of a phased release of seven new generic top-level domains gTLDs.

The event was billed as the first addition of major gTLDs to the Internet since the DNS was developed in the 1980s.

The seven new gTLDs, selected from over 180 proposals, were meant in part to take the pressure off the overcrowded .com domain.

.info has been the most successful of the seven new domain names, with over 3 million domain names registered up to mid-2006.

In addition, over 1.6 million .info websites are in active and dedicated use.

In the immediate aftermath of September 11th, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority switched to the easier to remember mta.info website to lead users to latest information on schedules and route changes on the area’s transportation services.

Chomsky.info is another noteworthy .info domain used by political activist Noam Chomsky. Spain.info is used by Spain’s tourism board to promote visitors to come to Spain.

.int

.int is a generic top-level domain “gTLD” used on the Internet’s Domain Name System.

According to current IANA policy, the .int “gTLD””:/glossary-of-printing-terms/gtld is reserved for international treaty organizations, and non-governmental organizations with “observer” status at the United Nations.

Additionally, .int was historically also used for “Internet infrastructure databases”.

The contents of .arpa had been slated to be moved into .int, but in 2000 the IAB recommended that no new infrastructure databases be added to .int and that .arpa retain its current use.

Its last remaining role was for reverse translation of IPv6 addresses under the .ip6.int zone.

This zone was officially turned off on 6 June 2006 in favour of .ip6.arpa, also administered by IANA.

The .eu.int sub-domain was used by the European Union-affiliated institutions. However, the aforementioned institutions’ domain names changed to the TLD .eu on May 9, 2006 (Europe Day).

The institutions’ previous “.eu.int” addresses will continue to be accessible for a transitional period of at least one year.

.io

ccTLD for The British Indian Ocean Territory

.iq

ccTLD for The Republic of Iraq

.ir

ccTLD for Iran

.is

ccTLD for The Republic of Iceland

.it

ccTLD for The Italian Republic/Italy

.je

ccTLD for The Bailiwick of Jersey/Channel Islands

.jm

ccTLD for Jamaica

.jo

ccTLD for Jordan

.jobs

A top-level domain approved by ICANN on April 8, 2005 as a sponsored TLD as part of the second group of new TLD applications submitted in 2004.

It is restricted to employment-related sites.

It entered the root in September, 2005, and began accepting registrations later in the year.

.jp

ccTLD for Japan

.ke

ccTLD for The Republic of Kenya

.kg

ccTLD for The Kyrgyz Republic/Kyrgyzstan

.kh

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Cambodia

.ki

ccTLD for The Republic of Kiribati

.km

ccTLD for The Union of the Comoros

.kn

ccTLD for The Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis

.kp

ccTLD for The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea/North Korea

.kr

ccTLD for The Republic of Korea/South Korea

.kw

ccTLD for The State of Kuwait

.ky

ccTLD for The Cayman Islands

.kz

ccTLD for The Republic of Kazakhstan

.la
  1. ccTLD for The Lao People’s Democratic Republic/Laos

  2. Increasingly marketed as the TLD for Los Angeles.

.lb

ccTLD for The Lebanese Republic/Lebanon

.lc

ccTLD for Saint Lucia

.li

ccTLD for The Principality of Liechtenstein

.lk

ccTLD for The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

.lr

ccTLD for The Republic of Liberia

.ls

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Lesotho

.lt

ccTLD for Tthe Republic of Lithuania

.lu

ccTLD for The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

.lv

ccTLD for The Republic of Latvia

.ly

ccTLD for Libya

.ma

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Morocco

.mc

ccTLD for The Principality of Monaco

.md

ccTLD for The Republic of Moldova

.me

ccTLD for The Republic of Montenegro

.mg

ccTLD for Republic of Madagascar

.mh

ccTLD for The Republic of the Marshall Islands

.mil

Military

The generic top-level domain for the United States Department of Defense and its subsidiary organizations.

It was one of the first top-level domains, created in January 1985.

The United States is the only country that has a top-level domain for its military.

Other countries often use second-level domains for this purpose, e.g., .mod.uk for the United Kingdom’s Ministry of Defence.

Although the United States military has its own top-level domain, it still uses .com domains for some of its recruitment sites, such as goarmy.com.

Internet purists consider this to be improper, as it is not a commercial entity.

Also, the military uses .edu domains for its service academies: the United States Military Academy, United States Naval Academy, and the United States Air Force Academy can all be reached using either an .edu or a .mil domain.

The official athletic program sites of all three academies use .com domains.

The Department of Defense is, however, also using some “vanity domains” within .mil in recent times, such as americasupportsyou.mil.

.mk

ccTLD for The Republic of Macedonia

.ml

ccTLD for The Republic of Mali

.mm

ccTLD for The Union of Myanmar

.mn

ccTLD for Mongolia

.mo

ccTLD for The Macau Special Administrative Region, commonly known as Macau or Macao

.mobi

A top-level domain approved by ICANN as a sponsored TLD.

It will be restricted to mobile devices and sites providing services for them on the Mobile Web.

It is sponsored by a consortium of companies including Google, Microsoft, Vodafone, Samsung, Ericsson and Nokia.

Since many of the mobile devices which may use services under this domain are telephones, there is some overlap between the target market of this and the .tel domain, also approved by ICANN in the same round.

.mp

ccTLD for The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

.mq

ccTLD for Martinique

.mr

ccTLD for Mauritania

.ms

ccTLD for Montserrat

.mt

ccTLD for Malta

.mu

ccTLD for The Republic of Mauritius

.museum

A gTLD used exclusively by museums, museum associations, and individual members of the museum profession, as these groups are defined by the ICOM.

In joint action with the J. Paul Getty Trust, ICOM established the Museum Domain Management Association (MuseDoma) for the purpose of submitting an application to ICANN for the creation of the new gTLD, and to operate it if the application was approved.

The .museum domain was entered into the root of Domain Name System on 20 October 2001, and was the first sponsored top-level domain to be instituted through ICANN’s action.

The idea behind this domain is that it will be beneficial for Internet users to have a segment of the TLD namespace reserved for the use of museums; a namespace whose conventions are defined by the museum community.

The .museum TLD will grant users a quick and intuitive way to verify the authenticity of a museum site.

Conversely, since it is a type of formal third-party certification, museums using this namespace obtain a way to assure visitors of the site’s validity.

.mv

ccTLD for The Republic of Maldives/Maldive Islands

.mw

ccTLD for The Republic of Malawi

.mx

ccTLD for The United Mexican States/Mexico

.my

ccTLD for Malaysia

.mz

ccTLD for The Republic of Mozambique

.na

ccTLD for The Republic of Namibia

.name

A generic top-level domain (gTLD) intended for the use of individuals’ real names, nicknames, screen names, pseudonyms or other personal names.

It was delegated to Global Name Registry in 2001, although it did not become fully operational until January 2002.

Domains can be registered on the second level (foo.name) and the third level (foo.bar.name).

It is also possible to register an e-mail address on the form foo@bar.name together with, or instead of, the domain foo.bar.name.

Such an e-mail address is a forwarding account, and requires another e-mail address to be delivered to.

When a domain is registered on the third level (foo.bar.name), the second level (bar.name in this case) is shared, and may not be registered.

Further third level objects like baz.bar.name or bar@bar.name may be registered.

Other second level domains like foobar.name remain unaffected.

.nc

ccTLD for New Caledonia

.ne

ccTLD for The Republic of Niger

.net

Network

A generic top-level domain gTLD used on the Internet’s Domain Name System. The .net gTLD is currently operated by VeriSign.

Registrations are processed via accredited registrars and internationalized domain names are also accepted.

.net was one of the original top-level domains (despite not being mentioned in RFC 920), created in January 1985.

It was initially intended for use by network oriented entities such as Internet service providers.

Currently, there are no formal restrictions on who can register a .net domain name.

Therefore, while still popular with network operators, it is often treated as a second .com.

In addition to being an abbreviation for “network”, “net” is also a romanisation of the Russian word ??? (“no”, also commonly romanised as the more acoustically appropriate “nyet”), and a domain name like “object.net” can be interpreted as “there is no object”. Some domains exploit this pun, for example mozga.net (brain absent) or putina.net (there is no Vladimir Putin).

.nf

ccTLD for Norfolk Island

.ng

ccTLD for The Federal Republic of Nigeria

.ni

ccTLD for Nicaragua

.nl

ccTLD for The Netherlands

.no

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Norway

.np

ccTLD for The State of Nepal

.nr

ccTLD for The Republic of Nauru

.nu

ccTLD for Niue

Marketed as resembling “new” in English and “now” in Nordic/Dutch. Also meaning “nude” in French.

.nz

ccTLD for New Zealand

.om

ccTLD for Oman

.org

Organization

A generic top-level domain gTLD used in the Internet’s Domain Name System.

In the typical style of most gTLDs, .org is sometimes pronounced in word form as ‘dot-org’ when spoken, although, also consistent with the style, not all users of the TLD agree on this usage.

.org was one of the original top-level domains, established in January 1985, originally intended for use by organizations that did not meet the requirements for other gTLDs .

Now anyone can register a .org domain. .org was the domain commonly recommended for use by individuals, although .name and .info are now alternatives.

The .org TLD has been operated since January 1, 2003 by Public Interest Registry.

Although organizations anywhere in the world can register .org domains, many countries have a second-level domain with a similar purpose under their own country code TLD.

Such second-level domains are usually of the form .org.xx or .or.xx, where xx is the ccTLD.

The .org TLD is occasionally associated with the open source/free software movement, as opposed to the .com domains used mostly by companies.

.pa

ccTLD for The Republic of Panama

.pe

ccTLD for The Republic of Peru

.pf

ccTLD for French Polynesia

.pg

ccTLD for The Independent State of Papua New Guinea

.ph

ccTLD for Republic of The Philippines

.pk

ccTLD for Pakistan

.pl

ccTLD for The Republic of Poland

.pm

ccTLD for The Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

.pn

ccTLD for The Pitcairn Islands

.pr

ccTLD for The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

.pro

Professional

A generic TLD.

It was created in 2002 and is operated by the Registry Services Corporation.

The intention of the domain is to signal to web visitors that the website owner is a professional with valid credentials, but so far .pro has not been popular.

.pro domains are very expensive compared to other domains. Professional credentials must be verified, and the domain costs $350, with a one-time $100 registration fee.

The .pro serves as an official certification that the website owner’s credentials are accurate.

.pro has three second level domains: .law.pro, .med.pro, and .cpa.pro, reserved for lawyers, doctors, and certified public accountants, respectively.

Direct second-level registrations were later opened up, with restrictions.

Registrations are processed via accredited registrars.

.ps

ccTLD for The Palestinian Territories

.pt

ccTLD for The Portuguese Republic/Portugal

.pw

ccTLD for The Republic of Palau

.py

ccTLD for The Republic of Paraguay

.qa

ccTLD for The State of Qatar

.re

ccTLD for La Réunion or Île de la Réunion

.ro

ccTLD for Romania

.root

vrsn-end-of-zone-marker-dummy-record.root

A domain name listed in the DNS root zone as a diagnostic marker, whose presence demonstrates the root zone was not truncated upon loading by a root nameserver.

It could be argued it represents a top-level domain of .root, although technically no such delegation exists.

.rs

ccTLD for The Republic of Serbia

.ru

ccTLD for The Russian Federation/Russia

.rw

ccTLD for The Republic of Rwanda

.sa

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

.sb

ccTLD for The Solomon Islands

.sc
  1. ccTLD for The Republic of Seychelles

  2. Increasingly used as .Source

.sd

ccTLD for The Republic of the Sudan

.se

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Sweden

.sg

ccTLD for The Republic of Singapore

.sh

ccTLD for Saint Helena

.si

ccTLD for The Republic of Slovenia

.sit

A compression format and the corresponding file extension used primarily with Apple computers.

.sj

ccTLD for Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

.sk

ccTLD for The Slovak Republic/Slovakia

.sl

ccTLD for The Republic of Sierra Leone

.sm

ccTLD for The Most Serene Republic of San Marino

.sn

ccTLD for The Republic of Senegal

.so

ccTLD for The Somali Republic/Somalia

.sr

ccTLD for The Republic of Suriname

.st

ccTLD for The Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe

.su

ccTLD for The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics/Soviet Union/USSR

.sv

ccTLD for The Republic of El Salvador

.sy

ccTLD for Syria

.sz

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Swaziland

.tc

ccTLD for The Turks and Caicos Islands

.td

ccTLD for The Republic of Chad

.tel

A top-level domain approved byICANN as a sponsored TLD.

It would be restricted to “internet communication” services, and provide a supplement to the traditional numeric namespace for telecommunication services (i.e. telephone numbers).

.tf

ccTLD for The Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands

.tg

ccTLD for The Togolese Republic/Togo

.th

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Thailand

.tj

ccTLD for The Republic of Tajikistan

.tk

ccTLD for Tokelau

.tl

ccTLD for The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

.tm

ccTLD for Turkmenistan

.tn

ccTLD for The Tunisian Republic

.to

ccTLD for The Kingdom of Tonga

.tr

ccTLD for The Republic of Turkey

.travel

A top-level domain approved by ICANN on April 8, 2005 as a sponsored TLD in the second group of new TLD applications evaluated in 2004.

It is restricted to the use of travel agents, airlines, bed and breakfast operators, tourism bureaus, and others in the travel industry.

It is sponsored by Tralliance Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of TheGlobe.

.tt

ccTLD for The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

.tv
  1. ccTLD for Tuvalu

  2. Increasingly marketed for the tv/entertainment industry purposes

.tw

ccTLD for Taiwan/The Republic of China

.tz

ccTLD for The United Republic of Tanzania

.ua

ccTLD for Ukraine

.ug

ccTLD for The Republic of Uganda

.uk

ccTLD for The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

.us

ccTLD for The United States of America

The Internet country code top-level domain ccTLD for the United States of America, established in 1985.

Registrants of .us domains must be United States citizens, residents, or organizations, or a foreign entity with a presence in the United States.

Most registrants in the country have registered for .com, .net, .org and other gTLDs, rather than .us, which has traditionally primarily been used by many state and local governments (although any entity had the option of registering a .us domain).

In particular, the domains .gov and .mil have been reserved for US usage, and .edu is mostly limited to US entities (although a small number of non-United States educational institutions have managed to register there).

.uy

ccTLD for The Oriental Republic of Uruguay

.uz

ccTLD for The Republic of Uzbekistan

.va

ccTLD for State of the Vatican City

.vc

ccTLD for Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

.ve

ccTLD for The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

.vg

ccTLD for The British Virgin Islands

.vi

ccTLD for The United States Virgin Islands

.vn

ccTLD for The Socialist Republic of Vietnam

.vu

ccTLD for The Republic of Vanuatu

.wf

ccTLD for The Territory of Wallis and Futuna Islands

.ws
  1. ccTLD for for The Independent State of Samoa

  2. Increasingly marketed as .Website

.ye

ccTLD The Republic of Yemen

.yt

ccTLD for The Departmental Collectivity of Mayotte

.yu

ccTLD for The Union of Serbia and Montenegro/Formerly Yugoslavia

.za

ccTLD for The Republic of South Africa

.zm

ccTLD for The Republic of Zambia

.zw

ccTLD for The Republic of Zimbabwe

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