Glossary of Printing Terms:U

UCA

Under Color Addition

A method of darkening areas of a printed image by adding colored inks, used when making color separations from RGB to CMYK data.

The process works as follows: cyan, magenta and yellow portions are added in shadows and black is accordingly removed.

Under color addition is generally done to make the blacks look darker which increases the tonal range.

Not all achromatic portions, however, are replaced with black, rather a portion of black is generated according to the principle of chromatic composition from the primary colors cyan, magenta and yellow.

The aim is to enhance neutral image depths (gray tones) where the density of black is insufficient.

UCR

Under Color Removal

A technique for reducing the amount of magenta, cyan, and yellow in dark and neutral areas and replacing the amounts of CMY with black.

The technique works in the following way: colored ink is used up to a certain value, after which black is added in order to improve the dark areas of an image, so that total ink coverage (TIC) is not exceeded.

The image reproduction will appear normal but will use less ink, the shadows will have more detail, and trapping will be improved.

Cyan, magenta and yellow are removed as far as they are identical and replaced with the equivalent amount of black.

The depth of colors is thus improved and the total amount of printing ink reduced.

UCR

Under Color Removal (Under Color Reduction)

A technique for reducing the amount of magenta, cyan, and yellow in dark and neutral areas and replacing the amounts of CMY with black. The technique works in the following way: colored ink is used up to a certain value, after which black is added in order to improve the dark areas of an image, so that total ink coverage (TIC) is not exceeded.

Cyan, magenta and yellow are removed as far as they are identical and replaced with the equivalent amount of black. The depth of colors is thus improved and the total amount of printing ink reduced.

UDDI

Universal Description, Discovery and Integration

A specification for development of global online directories and registries of Web services.

UDDI allows organizations to register their technical specifications (such as integration profiles and capabilities) and then identify the specifications of others.

This will enable universal interoperability of B2B transactions for a variety of e-business services.

Three types of information are registered:

1) Company names and primary services offered.

2) the company category based geographical location and SIC code universally used by U.S. government and United Nations.

3) company interactions with other companies.

http://www.uddi.org.

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

The TCP/IP protocol that allows packets of data, or datagrams, to be sent from one Internet application to another.

UDP is a “connectionless” protocol, because, unlike TCP, it does not require the sender and receiver to establish a connection before data is transmitted.

It’’s considered “unreliable,” because it doesn’’t guarantee that datagrams will arrive in the same order they were sent, or even that they will arrive at all.

If reliability is desired, it’’s up to the application using UDP to provide it.

UL

Underwriters’’ Laboratories USA

Ultra-Removable

An adhesive that allows a label to be reapplied in another area and is not limited to the number of times it can be repositioned.

Repositionable adhesive does not gain permanency over time.

Ultra-Removable Adhesive

An adhesive that allows a label to be reapplied in another area and is not limited to the number of times it can be repositioned.

Repositionable adhesive does not gain permanency over time. Also called repositionable.

Ultrabold Type

A type style that is heavier than bold, sometimes referred to as black type.

Ultraviolet Ink

UV Ink

Printing inks cured with ultraviolet light.

These inks contain no volatile substances, but instead, in addition to color pigments, individual molecules and short molecular chains that can link to form polymers and so-called photo-initiators.

The latter decompose when exposed to UV light and form highly reactive fragments.

These radicals trigger a polymerization process in which stable, three-dimensional network structures are formed. UV inks are primarily used to print non-absorbent materials, such as metal (sheet metal) and plastic, but also high-quality paper boards and labels.

ULWC

ULWC, SC, MWC, MFC, LWC, HWC

Standard international acronyms for weights and grades of papers used in rotary offset and letterpress printing.

Coated stock can be identified HWC (heavy-weight coated), MWC (medium-weight coated), LWC (lightweight coated), or ULWC (ultra-lightweight coated).

All are wood pulp-based, but available in many varieties. MFC (machine-finished coated) paper is made primarily from ground wood pulp, has a grammage of 48 to 80 gsm, and may be high volume.

LWC paper is particularly lightweight stock for use on rotary offset machines. SC (supercalendered) paper is an uncoated wood pulp stock based mainly on ground wood and recycled content.

It features an additional finish applied by a separate supercalender.

UN/EDIFACT

United Nations/Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce, and Transport

Unbleached

Paper or pulp that has not been through the bleaching process.

Unbound

Refers to a book which has never been bound.

Until the 19th century, books were sold as unbound leaves that were bound to a buyer’s specifications.

This term might also refer to a book in an advanced state of publication, such as a galley.

Uncalendered Paper

Paper that has not been sent through the stack of polished steel rollers used in the calendering process which smooths the surface of the paper.

Uncoated Paper

Paper that has been manufactured without the use of coating materials.

Uncut

Refers to the untrimmed pages of a book – the edges appear rough and uneven.

In early bookbinding, the unbound pages of a book were left uncut until the binder trimmed them flush and smooth as part of the binding process.

Today the terms uncut and unopened are often used synonymously. See also deckle edges.

Undeliverables

Any mail that is declared undeliverable by the USPS due to incomplete delivery address information.

Under Color Addition

UCA

A method of darkening areas of a printed image by adding colored inks, used when making color separations from RGB to CMYK data.

The process works as follows: cyan, magenta and yellow portions are added in shadows and black is accordingly removed.

Under color addition is generally done to make the blacks look darker which increases the tonal range.

Not all achromatic portions, however, are replaced with black, rather a portion of black is generated according to the principle of chromatic composition from the primary colors cyan, magenta and yellow.

The aim is to enhance neutral image depths (gray tones) where the density of black is insufficient.

Under Color Removal

UCR

A technique for reducing the amount of magenta, cyan, and yellow in dark and neutral areas and replacing the amounts of CMY with black.

The technique works in the following way: colored ink is used up to a certain value, after which black is added in order to improve the dark areas of an image, so that total ink coverage (TIC) is not exceeded.

The image reproduction will appear normal but will use less ink, the shadows will have more detail, and trapping will be improved.

Cyan, magenta and yellow are removed as far as they are identical and replaced with the equivalent amount of black.

The depth of colors is thus improved and the total amount of printing ink reduced.

Underbasing

When silk screening on dark shirts, the print normally needs a white layer of ink under the colors to allow the colors to be bright on the garment.

This layer of ink is called an Underbase. Most underbases are white and need to be flash-cured before another color can be printed on top. Some designs have more than one white underbase.

Undercolor

The cyan, magenta and yellow that is present in the dark neutral tone areas of a process color image.

Underexposure
  1. An image sensor which receives insufficient light and provides an image that is very dark in appearance.

  2. A condition in which too little light reaches the film, producing a thin negative, a dark slide, or a muddy-looking print.

Underlining

The pen or pencil markings where the previous owner marked a book to highlight words, sentences, and/or passages of text.

Underruns

The quantity of pieces that a printing run is short of the original order quantity.

Unders

Underruns, the quantity of pieces that a printing run is short of the original order quantity.

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

A specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945.

Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.

In total, 191 nations belong to UNESCO. The organization is based in Paris, with over 50 field offices and several institutes and offices throughout the world.

Most of the field offices are “cluster” offices covering three or more countries; there are also national and regional offices. UNESCO pursues its action through five major programmes: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.

Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity; international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights; and attempts to bridge the world-wide digital divide.

Unicode

A standard method of coding characters for electronic processing using 16-digit binary (16-bit) numbers.

Unlike ASCII and other codes, which work with eight-bit numbers, Unicode is capable of representing 65,536 different characters.

This covers all characters and commonly used scripts in the world.

Uniform Resource Locator

URL

The human-readable address of a source of data located on the World Wide Web.

URLs consist of “http://host/directory or file name”.

Uninterruptible Power Supply

UPS

A backup power supply the contains a battery that will maintain power in the event of a power line failure.

A UPS generally has enough stored power to keep a system running for a few minutes.

This gives you sufficient time to save your work and shut down your system properly.

Unipod

A one-legged support used to hold the camera steady.

Unit
  1. A term that most typesetting systems refer to as the smallest increments in size and width of characters that is possible.

  2. A complete station on a press that consists of an inking system, plate cylinder, blanket cylinder and impression cylinder.

Each color being printed uses a unit on the press.

Unit Set

A multiple part form that is fastened together in a perforated stub.

The individual parts are detached at the perforation.

Each form is an individual set, opposed to continuous forms that are attached to each other in a continuous stream.

Instead of a perforated stub, the parts could be fastened by edge gluing.

Unit Sets

A multiple part form that is fastened together in a perforated stub.

The individual parts are detached at the perforation.

Each form is an individual set, opposed to continuous forms that are attached to each other in a continuous stream.

United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization

UNESCO

A specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945.

Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.

In total, 191 nations belong to UNESCO. The organization is based in Paris, with over 50 field offices and several institutes and offices throughout the world.

Most of the field offices are “cluster” offices covering three or more countries; there are also national and regional offices. UNESCO pursues its action through five major programmes: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.

Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity; international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights; and attempts to bridge the world-wide digital divide.

United States Copyright Office

USCO

United States Copyright Office is an organization “to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries” (U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 8)

USCO

Universal Description, Discovery and Integration

UDDI

A specification for development of global online directories and registries of Web services.

UDDI allows organizations to register their technical specifications (such as integration profiles and capabilities) and then identify the specifications of others.

This will enable universal interoperability of B2B transactions for a variety of e-business services.

Three types of information are registered:

1) Company names and primary services offered.

2) the company category based geographical location and SIC code universally used by U.S. government and United Nations.

3) company interactions with other companies.

http://www.uddi.org.

Universal Printer Interface

UP3I

This standard allows high-speed digital output devices such as Xerox Docutechs, Xeikons, Heidleberg DI presses and similar, to receive open workflows so that document processing and output functions (both pre and post processing) are not restricted to a proprietary format.

Universal Product Code

UPC

A 12 digit unique article number which is bar coded on products used by the grocery and retail industries. Supersets to UPC are EAN, Jan, Bookland and ISSN bar codes.

EAN bar codes are used in Europe and JAN bar codes are used in Japan.

Bookland bar codes are used on books and ISSN bar codes are used on magazines.

UNIX

An operating system designed for multi-user, multi-task systems where many people will use the system at one time. UNIX has TCP/IP built into it.

Unjustified

When the left, right or both margins of text or type are not aligned.

Unopened

A book that has been left in the beginning stages of its binding process or it was issued in this manner.

The folded edges of the signatures have not been cut open for reading.

UNPAG

Unpaginated

The pages are not numbered (although each signature may be designated by letter).

Unpaginated

UNPAG

The pages are not numbered (although each signature may be designated by letter).

Unsharp Masking

A color separation and manipulation technique that is used to increase the overall contrast at the edges of density or color changes.

This can be done either electronically or photographically.

The location where the color changes occur is found and the tones and colors are adjusted to create a more definite change. Whether done electronically or photographically, unsharp masking increases the overall detail of an image.

Untreated Paper

Paper with no additional protective layer.

UP3I

Universal Printer Interface

This standard allows high-speed digital output devices such as Xerox Docutechs, Xeikons, Heidleberg DI presses and similar, to receive open workflows so that document processing and output functions (both pre and post processing) are not restricted to a proprietary format.

UPC

Universal Product Code

A 12 digit unique article number which is bar coded on products used by the grocery and retail industries. Supersets to UPC are EAN, Jan, Bookland and ISSN bar codes.

EAN bar codes are used in Europe and JAN bar codes are used in Japan.

Bookland bar codes are used on books and ISSN bar codes are used on magazines.

Upcharge

An extra charge that is added in addition to the standard price.

Upgradable Mail

First Class Mail and Standard Mail (A) that meets OCR requirements so that it can be processed on a multiline optical character reader to have a bar code applied.

Upload

Copying files from your computer to that of a remote computer

Upper Case

The capital letters of the alphabet.

UPS

Uninterruptible Power Supply

A backup power supply used in the event of a power line failure.

A UPS may consist of batteries, a generator, or it may consist of both.

Upstream

A kind of transmission in which information or data is fed from an end user to a server.

See downstream

Upstyle

The use of capital letters on all words in a phrase, except articles, prepositions, and small conjunctions.

Upstyle ignores standard rules of grammar.

URL

Uniform Resource Locator/r/n/r/nCommonly referred to as a web address, URL is computer notation representing the location of a user, host, device, or information on a network./r/n/r/nThe human-readable address of a source of data located on the World Wide Web/r/n/r/nIt usually appears as http://www.(name).com./r/n/r/nThere can also be addresses that include a /(filename) after the “.com” reference.

US Paper Sizes

US standard sizes include the following:

A (8.5” x 11”), B (11” x 17”), C (17” x 22”), D (22” x 34”), E (34” x 44”), executive (7.25” x 10.5”), and legal (8.5” x 14”). ’’A’’ size is also referred to as ’’letter’’, and ’’B’’ size is referred to as ’’tabloid’’ or ’’l

USB Cable

Universal Serial Bus

A computer connection used as a transmission device which requires a newer Pentium computer.

Transmission speeds are faster than parallel or serial cable.

USB Port

Universal Serial Bus

A computer connection used as a transmission device which requires a newer Pentium computer.

Transmission speeds are faster than parallel or serial cable.

USCO

United States Copyright Office is an organization “to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries” (U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 8)

USCO

Usenet

A bulletin board system that is accessed through the internet that provides access to more than 14,000 newsgroups which includes every interest group imaginable.

User Datagram Protocol

UDP

The TCP/IP protocol that allows packets of data, or datagrams, to be sent from one Internet application to another. UDP is a “connectionless” protocol, because, unlike TCP, it does not require the sender and receiver to establish a connection before data is transmitted.

It’’s considered “unreliable,” because it doesn’’t guarantee that datagrams will arrive in the same order they were sent, or even that they will arrive at all.

If reliability is desired, it’’s up to the application using UDP to provide it.

User-Agent

A software program that helps a client or server application perform specific jobs, or seek out information, etc.

UV

Ultraviolet

The part of the spectrum where the wavelenght of light is shorter than the wavelength of visible light.

UV Coating

Ultraviolet Coating

UV Coating Coating systems based on unsaturated polyesters or polyacrylates, or a combination of the two, in which ultra-violet light triggers the drying process. This high-energy light breaks chemical bonds in the coating material’s molecules, which then link up to form long, highly-branched chains, causing the material to solidify.

The drying process takes only seconds, which means that UV coatings can be worked quickly. These coatings contain no volatile substances, making the layer thickness of the liquid and dry coating similar. UV coatings can be applied inline in very high layer thicknesses (up to 8 mm), have excellent gloss and can be barely distinguished from laminated products (film-lamination), though they do emit a odor.

UV Ink

Ultraviolet Ink

Printing inks cured with ultraviolet light.

These inks contain no volatile substances, but instead, in addition to color pigments, individual molecules and short molecular chains that can link to form polymers and so-called photo-initiators.

The latter decompose when exposed to UV light and form highly reactive fragments.

These radicals trigger a polymerization process in which stable, three-dimensional network structures are formed. UV inks are primarily used to print non-absorbent materials, such as metal (sheet metal) and plastic, but also high-quality paper boards and labels.

UV Invisible Fluorescent Ink

Ultraviolet Invisible Fluorescent Ink

UV invisible fluorescent ink is transparent white or colorless and can only be detected under ultra violet light.


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