Glossary of Printing Terms:T

T-Grain Technology

Trademark for patented Kodak film emulsion technology used in all Kodak Advanced Photo System films; uniquely shaped grains that align better than conventional silver crystals, absorbing and transmitting light more effectively to produce sharper images. Kodak Advantix 400 film is the company’s first 400-speed film using all T-grain emulsions.

T1

A leased line that provides high-speed 1.544 Mbps (megabit per second) connections to the Internet.

T3

A leased line that provides ultra-high-speed 45-Mbps connections to the Internet.

T4S

A symbol used to indicate that the sheet paper has been trimmed on all four sides.

Tab Delimited File

A data file that uses tabs to separate individual fields.

Table of Contents

The list of a book’s chapters or a magazine’s features and departments that appears as part of the front matter.

Tabloid

An A3 (11” x 17”) trim size newsletter.

TAC

Total Area Coverage

Value indicating the maximum amount of printing ink needed for the production of colors in four-color and offset printing.

Normally the higher the total ink limit, the darker the color to be reproduced.

Tack

The stickiness of ink required to adhere properly to the type of substrate being printed on.

To much tack can cause the fibers to be pulled off the paper causing picking.

Tag

A label attached to a product without the use of an adhesive.

They are used for the purpose of providing product indentification, information, instructions and warnings.

Tag Paper

A strong, heavyweight paper stock that has a smooth, hard finish.

TAGA

Technical Association of the Graphic Arts

An international technical association for professionals in the graphic arts industry founded in 1948.

Its some 900 members include scientists and engineers from publishing houses, print shops and other graphic arts businesses and suppliers.

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Tagged Image File Format

TIFF

A graphics file format developed by Aldus, Adobe, and Apple that is especially suited for representing large bitmaps, such as scanned black and white or color images.

Tagged Image File Format for Image Technology

TIFF/IT

A file format structured to digitally send data for print ready pages that have been created on high-end prepress systems.

Tagged Image File Format for Image Technology Profile 1

TIFF/IT P-1

A simplified form of the TIFF/IT format that maximizes the compatibility between desktop systems and proprietary CEPS (Color Electronic Prepress Systems).

It is widely used for exchange of advertising and editorial material.

The DDAP (Digital Distribution of Advertising for Publications) Association specifies that the TIFF/IT P-1 be used in the exchange of digital advertising files.

Tail

The bottom of a page.

Tamper Evident Label

Tamper evident labels show evidence of tampering by leaving a message on the surface that it is removed from.

The words “VOID” or “OPENED” appear when the label is removed.

The label cannot be replaced without indication that it was tampered with.

Tamper-Evident Adhesive Labels

A kind of adhesive labels that make any attempts to open or manipulate the product visible.

Special tamper-evident labels are used, for example, to protect the integrity of packaging.

Tamperproof

When an item, such as an evelope, label or container seal, cannot be opened or removed, without destroying it, making it impossible to returned it to its original state.

Tare Weight

The weight of the container or packaging materials.

The gross weight minus the net weight equals the tare weight.

For roll stock the tare weight would be the roll wrapper and the core.

TB

Terabyte

One trillion bytes

TCL

Programming language.

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

The protocol that provides reliable delivery service to Internet applications.

Using TCP, one Internet client can transmit streams of data to another Internet client.

The TCP protocol retransmits lost and corrupted data packets to ensure reliable delivery of information.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

A set of rules governing the reliable transfer of data between computers on the Internet.

Tear Strength

Paper’’s ability to resist tearing while going through various stages of production such as printing, folding, book binding and miscellaneous bindery operations.

Teaser

In a direct mail package, it is a word or phrase used, generally on the outside of the mailing envelope, to attract the attention of the recipient to get him to open the package and read the of offer inside.

Technical Association of the Graphic Arts

TAGA

An international technical association for professionals in the graphic arts industry founded in 1948.

Its some 900 members include scientists and engineers from publishing houses, print shops and other graphic arts businesses and suppliers.

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TEG

Top Edge Gilt

Usually abbreviated teg, it means that the top edges of the pages have been covered with gold leaf or gilt material.

Telephoto Lens

A lens with a long focal length, generally above 55mm, which enables a distant setting to be brought closer than a standard lens would allow for photographing.

A 50mm lens with a 3x zoom is the same as a lens having the capability to go from 50mm to 150mm.

A lens that makes a subject appear larger on film than does a normal lens at the same camera-to-subject distance.

A telephoto lens has a longer focal length and narrower field of view than a normal lens.

Telnet

A standard Internet protocol used to access remote hosts.

The program is used by the host to request that a password must be entered by anyone wanting to gain access to their site.

Template

A guide for positioning pages or parts of pages consisting of a series of lines to indicate final trim size, bleed, head margin, back margin, type page size and other elements.

Tensile Strength

The ability of the paper to withstand the stress and strain applied to it before breaking down and pulling apart.

Tenting

When continuous glue lines used to glue the parts of a continuous form together causes it to bunch up at the folding perfs, pushing the perfs upward in the shape of a tent.

Tera

1000 Gigabytes.

Terabyte

TB

One trillion bytes.

Terahertz Waves

The electromagnetic waves found in the spectrum between microwaves and infra-red light with a frequency of approximately 300 GHz to 10 Terahertz (wavelengths of 1 mm to 30 mm).

In addition to fast data communication and measuring applications in atmospheric research and astrophysics, new imaging methods are just one of the future areas of application for this segment of the spectrum.

Scientists are working on a method of making the content of books visible without having to open them.

This work is intended to make it possible to look at manuscripts that are already so damaged that opening them would destroy them completely.

Tertiary

The six colors created from the three primary and three secondary colors.

Tertiary Color

A color rendered from the mixing of three primary colors.

Examples include brown, olive and ochre.

Test

Different trial versions of a direct mail package sent to a select number of prospects used to determine what works to get customers to respond to an offer and who will buy the product.

TeX

Pronounced “tech”

A typesetting program developed by the American computer scientist Donald E. Knuth in the late 1970s specifically for scientific texts.

Unlike today’s standard layout software, such as Quark Xpress or InDesign, TeX is not based on a graphic user interface, but processes texts containing formatting instructions.

The software is available for numerous computer types and uses its own fonts that are developed using the Metafont program.

Text

The body content of a page as compared to the heading or illustrations.

Text Block

The signatures of a book, sewn and trimmed, but without covers, endpapers, or a binding.

Also known as book block.

Text Paper

Paper stock used for products such as books, pages of reports, and other items that do not require the stiffness of card stock.

Generally is a higher quality sheet.

Text Spacing

The adjustment of the space between letters in a text.

Text Wrap

Text wrapping around an object on a page.

Text lines are shortened to varied lengths to fit around the object.

Textile Adhesive

An adhesive that removes cleanly from fabric.

If left on the fabric for extreme periods of time, staining may occur.

Should not be used on velvet, furs, suede, leather or plastic.

Textured Inks

Inks with special structures that create their color impression in part or whole by their physical structure and not by their dyes or pigments.

Such inks can contain elements that selectively reflect light of a certain wavelength with the aid of interference effects.

Textured inks create shimmering color effects that can vary, depending on the viewing angle. This kind of color generation has its model in nature, where it is found in insects and some species of birds.

It cannot be reproduced by conventional means, which is why textured inks are often used for documents where forgery protection is desired.

TFT

Thin Film Transistor

Refers to technology employed in flat screen monitors, in which minute transistor elements control the alignment of liquid crystals in such a way that light is allowed to pass through or is blocked.

Within the TFT element, the total brightness and color reproduction are simultaneously controlled.

The light for every pixel passes through a color cell consisting of three color filters (red, green, blue), and every filter is equipped with a transistor that can be driven separately and controls the transmittance of light of every color element.

See also LCD

TFTP

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

A less complex and easier to program version of FTP that lacks the authentication services FTP provides and relies on UDP rather than TCP for data transport.

The International Organization for Standardization

ISO

An international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies.

Founded on February 23, 1947, the organization produces world-wide industrial and commercial standards, the so-called ISO standards.

While the ISO defines itself as a non-governmental organization (NGO), its ability to set standards which often become law through treaties or national standards makes it more powerful than most NGOs, and in practice it acts as a consortium with strong links to governments.

The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO’s work results in international agreements which are published as International Standards.

Established standards for paper sizes based on the metric system (millimeters).
The standards have been grouped into three different series of requirements.

The “A-series” is for general printing.

ISO

Thermal Binding

A binding process similar to hot adhesive perfect binding which applies hot liquid adhesive to bind the sheets.

Instead of a liquid adhesive, thermal bindnig uses an adhesive strip which is attached to the binding edge of the sheets.

As heat is applied, the adhesive on the strip bonds with the sheets.

Thermal Erosion

A technique for the imaging of offset plates, by which a thermal erosion layer is removed.

The printing plates then only require mechanical treatment and in some cases can be rinsed with water.

The main disadvantage of this system is that it produces debris which must be removed from the CtP system.

Thermal Labels

Thermal labels are pressure sensitive labels that use a heat process when imprinted.

There are two different types of thermal labels, thermal transfer and direct thermal.

Thermal Paper

Paper that has a special heat sensitive coating applied.

Thermal Printer

A nonimpact printer that uses a special heating process when imprinting.

There are two different types of thermal printers; thermal transfer and direct thermal.

A thermal transfer printer uses a ribbon and heat in the printing process, where as direct thermal uses heat along with a special heat sensitive paper in the printing process.

Thermal Transfer

A printing process where the print head is heated and then comes in contact with a special ribbon material that is running on top of the sheet.

The heat from the print head causes the coating from the ribbon to be transferred to the sheet, creating an image.

Thermal Transfer Labels

Pressure sensitive labels that use the thermal transfer printing process for imaging.

Thermochromic Ink

Ink that changes color when exposed to heat and then changes back to its original color when cooled.

Thermochromic Printing Inks

Inks that change color or disappear completely as the temperature changes, including as a result of brief exposure to body heat.

Such inks are used to protect documents against forgery, and as temperature indicators for drinks and medicines, as well as for the monitoring of heating and cooling units.

Another application is the indication of potential damage to heat-sensitive products, since certain thermochromic printing inks change color permanently at certain temperatures.

Thermography

A printing process that works along with another printing process by the use of a resin powder, the printed ink, and heat.

The powder is applied to the ink while it is still wet and then is sent through a heating process.

The powder only sticks to the printed area.

When it goes through the heat process, the powder swells and creates a raised image in the printed area.

Thickness

In regard to paper it is measured in thousandths of an inch.

In regard to a rule it is measured in point size.

Thin Negative

A negative that is underexposed or underdeveloped (or both).

A thin negative appears less dense than a normal negative.

Third Class Mail

Mail that would not be considered First Class or Periodical Mail.

A mail classification formerly known as Bulk Mail and is now referred to as Standard Mail.

Thixotropy

The characteristic of certain viscous substances to become less viscous through mechanical action (stirring).

Thixotropic materials are used in offset printing inks to enhance the quality of multi-color printing.

The lower viscosity inks in the inking unit solidify to a certain degree on the printing stock before drying, and additional printing processes are thus optimized.

Threats

Risks of someone breaking through the security and gaining access into the network.

Three-Blade Automatic Cutting Machine

A cutting machine equipped with three blades for cutting products on three different sides.

Such machines typically operate in two stages.

First top and bottom edges are trimmed, and the third blade then trims the front edge.

Three-Quarters Binding

A binding in which the spine and corners are generously covered with leather.

The rest of the binding material is different, i.e., cloth, marbled paper, another type of leather.

Through-The-Lens Focusing

Viewing a scene to be photographed through the same lens that admits light to the film.

Through-the-lens viewing, as in a single-lens-reflex (SLR) camera, while focusing and composing a picture, eliminates parallax.

Through-The-Lens Metering

Meter built into the camera determines exposure for the scene by reading light that passes through the lens during picture-taking.

Thumb Test

Test used to determine the grain direction of paper.

Thumbnail

A miniature sketch or copy of a page.

TIC

Total Ink Coverage

Value indicating the maximum amount of printing ink needed for the production of colors in four-color and offset printing.

Normally the higher the total ink limit, the darker the color to be reproduced.

Ties

The tab areas between the cuts in a perforation that hold the paper together.

Ties Per Inch

The number of ties in a inch of a perforation.

TIFF

Tagged Image File Format

A file format used for images and defined by a computer industry committee in 1986.

A graphic file format developed by Aldus, Adobe, and Apple that is especially suited for representing large bitmaps, such as scanned black and white or color images.

It is a so-called screen format that contains information on the brightness and hue of every pixel.

The TIFF format supports various color systems, from black-and-white to full-color RGB images.

TIFF files can be compressed by a variety of methods.

TIFF/IT

Tagged Image File Format for Image Technology

A file format structured to digitally send data for print ready pages that have been created on high-end prepress systems.

TIFF/IT-P1

Tagged Image File Format for Image Technology Profile 1

A simplified form of the TIFF/IT format that maximizes the compatibility between desktop systems and proprietary CEPS (Color Electronic Prepress Systems).

It is widely used for exchange of advertising and editorial material.

The DDAP (Digital Distribution of Advertising for Publications) Association specifies that the TIFF/IT-P1 be used in the exchange of digital advertising files.

Tight Back

The book that is bound very tight with an inflexible spine, almost to a fault because when it opens, the pages will not lie flat by themselves.

However, as the book becomes well used, the binding will eventually loosen.

The use of the tight back declined dramatically after about 1820, except by fine binders who often used it along with false raised bands.

Also known as fast back.

Tight Release

When the level of adhesion, between the adhesive and the liner of a pressure sensitive label, makes it hard to remove the label from the liner.

TIL

Total Ink Limit

Value indicating the maximum amount of printing ink needed for the production of colors in four-color and offset printing.

Normally the higher the total ink limit, the darker the color to be reproduced.

Tile

When a page is too large to output all at one time, the page is divided into two sections that allow an overlap area so that the two can be assembled into one.

Time Exposure

A comparatively long exposure made in seconds or minutes.

Time Lapse

Shots captured in a designated timed sequence, such as sports events or nature photography, enables images to be captured showing a series of dynamic actions.

The timed sequence may occur rather quickly or over the period of several hours, such as a moon rising.

Tint
  1. The addition of white to a color.

Also when printing a color in any type of screening that causes the ink coverage to be less than 100%.

  1. Shades of white in a finished print, controlled by the color of the paper, varying from white to buff.
Tint Leaf Embossing

A process that involves the use of a combination die to provide a subtle antique appearance to material being foil stamped and embossed.

Tip-In

Adding an additional leaf of paper or card into an already formatted printed booklet or magazine.

Tip-in cards are added to commercial magazines in the magazine industry to add in advertising and promotional cards.

A tip-in technique sometimes has to be done unintentionally, as the result of a mistake by either the printer, designer, or client.

Tipped-In

A publisher-authorized content correction that is made after a book has been printed and bound.

It can be as small as a scrap of paper to correct type, or as large as a page or a signature to correct a section.

The corrected page or illustration is glued onto the page or inserted into an already bound book.

They are less common today with the advanced printing techniques, but were very common in the 17th and 18th centuries due to numerous printer errors.

Also known as Cancels.

Tissue

A thin sheet of paper inserted into a book to protect plates from damage and to prevent offsetting onto facing sheets.

Tissue Overlay

A very thin, translucent paper placed over artboards, used to indicate colored areas and to write other notes pertaining the layout.

Tissue Paper

The term used for various paper grades with a grammage of up to 30 gsm.

Title Page

The page of a book, which contains the name of the author(s), the title, and usually the publisher’s name and the date and place of publication.

TLD

Top-Level Domain

The last part of an Internet domain name; that is, the letters which follow the final dot of any domain name.

For example, in the domain name www.website.com, the top-level domain is com (or COM, as domain names are not case-sensitive).

Token Ring

A type of local network where the computers are linked in a circle and uses a type of messaging referred to as token, to communicate with each other.

Tolerance

The allowable range of variation to preset standards.

Tonal Jump

The sudden increase in dot gain that results from color bridges that form between dots.

In a tonal gradation from white to black, there is always a specific gray value at which two adjacent dots come into slight contact and join, a phenomenon called touching.

The result is that a smooth tonal gradation is destroyed by a visible, harsh transition or jump.

Tonal Range

The density difference from the lightest to the darkest area of a photograph or a printed halftone.

Contrast ratio in continuous-tone pictures from the lightest to the darkest tonal values.

Tonal Value

A term used in photography and printing for the share of an area that is covered or the effective optical area coverage.

Tonal Value Increase

TVI

The percent increase in the apparent darkness of an image in the mid-tone range during the production run.

Example: with 15 percent dot gain, a 55 percent halftone will increase to 70 percent.

This increase is compensated for in reproduction by making the image lighter in the color separations. See also dot gain

Tone
  1. The quality or lightness of a color when adding black and white to it.

  2. The degree of lightness or darkness in any given area of a print; also referred to as value.

Cold tones (bluish) and warm tones (reddish) refer to the color of the image in both black-and-white and color photographs.

Tone Compensation

To insure that natural tones are reproduced accurately, some digital cameras provide a tone adjustment or tone curve control, which compensates for the brightness and contrast of the subject matter.

Tone Compression

A reduction that occurs from the tonal range of density of the original image to the reduced density of the reproduced image.

Tone Gradation

A measure of the density change occurring within an image which is referenced as a percentage when measuring gradation of halftone dots.

Tone Value

A term used in photography and printing for the share of an area that is covered or the effective optical area coverage.

Toner

The powder or liquid that forms the image in electrostatic printing.

The toner sticks to the charged areas and is then transferred to the paper and fused by the use of heat.

Toner is used in photocopiers, laser printers and some proofing systems.

Toner Fuse

Toner fuse is a treatment that is added to the surface of the paper to promote better toner adhesion so the image cannot be lifted from the surface of the paper.

Toning

Intensifying or changing the tone of a photographic print after processing.

Solutions called toners are used to produce various shades of colors.

Tooling

The decoration on a book binding.

Tooth

The degree of roughness of the paper’’s finish that permits better absorption of ink.

Top Edge Gilded

TEG

The top edge of the book is coated with gold leaf.

Top Edge Gilt

TEG

Usually abbreviated teg, it means that the top edges of the pages have been covered with gold leaf or gilt material.

Topcoat

A coating or treatment added to the surface of a material to improve ink recepivity.

It may also add some protection against moisture, chemicals, sunlight and abrasion.

Topology

The physical arrangement of the computers on a local area network or on other communication systems.

There are three types of topology; bus topology where all devices are connected by a central cable, ring topology where all devices are connected together in a ring, and star topology where all devices are connected to a central hub.

Topping Rights

In an auction the opportunity given by a literary agent to a publisher to match (or in practice increase by an agreed percentage) the highest bid received from other participants.

Total Ink Coverage

TIC

Value indicating the maximum amount of printing ink needed for the production of colors in four-color and offset printing.

Normally the higher the total ink limit, the darker the color to be reproduced.

Total Ink Limit

TIL

Value indicating the maximum amount of printing ink needed for the production of colors in four-color and offset printing.

Normally the higher the total ink limit, the darker the color to be reproduced.

Touch Plate

Also known as bump color.

Adds a special color, or accents a color within a specific imag area, for reaching optimal color match.

Commonly used to achieve bright reds.

Tracked Focus

A feature that holds a subject in focus while the subject is in motion.

Tracking

Adjusting the spacing between letters throughout a section of text.

Generally, text is loosened or tightened to accommodate justification or to improve readability but still maintain the overall effect of uniformity.

The extension of the character spacing of a font by adjusting the distance between letters.

Tracking System

A system that provides information on the current status of a query or order or determines the location of a product in the manufacturing or delivery process.

These systems often form part of an electronic trading system that involves e-commerce.

A tracking system can allow print shop customers to follow the progress of their print job over the Internet.

Tractor Feed

The method of feeding continuous fan folded paper through continuous-form printers.

The holes along each edge of the form are placed on a wheel that has pins attached that are the same distance apart as the holes in the forms.

The wheels turn and transport the paper through the printer.

Trade Cloth

The regular cloth edition of a book, not a limited edition.

Trade Edition

The regular edition of a book, not a limited edition.

Trade Paperback

A soft cover edition of a book that generally has a high-quality binding and is in a larger size format than a traditional paperback.

Also known as Quality Paperback.

Trade Shop

A printer, bindery operation or service bureau that does work for other graphic arts professionals.

They generally do not do work for the general public.

Trademark

A registered word, letter, or device that grants exclusive rights to the owner to sell or distribute the item to which it is applied.

Traditional Color Angles

The screen angles most commonly used for color separations, yellow at 0 degrees, cyan at 15 degrees, black at 45 degrees and magenta at 75 degrees.

The best results in reducing a moire pattern are achieved when using these angles.

Transfer Tape

A tape which consists of a liner covering a double sided adhesive, wound into a large roll. As the tape is unwound, the exposed side of the adhesive is applied to the front or back of a sheet.

To use the tape, the liner material is removed to expose the other side of the adhesive, allowing the product to be attached to another form, a carton, a plastic container, or numerous other items.

Transitional

Typefaces that have considerable contrast between the thin and thick strokes in the letters, bracketed serifs, and has a somewhat vertical emphasis in the letters.

Translucent

When a material transmitts light in a diffuse manner so that objects behind it are not clearly distinguishable.

Translucent material can be seen through but not as clearly as a transparent material such as acetate.

Translucent Paper

A thin paper that does not have the same clarity as acetate, but can be used as an overlay allowing any content placed immediately beneath it to be viewed with some lack of clarity.

The stock is most often used for business forms or for blueprint work.

Basis weights are generally 11lb., 13 lb., 15 lb. and 16 lb.

Transmission Control Protocol

TCP

The protocol that provides reliable delivery service to Internet applications.

Using TCP, one Internet client can transmit streams of data to another Internet client.

The TCP protocol retransmits lost and corrupted data packets to ensure reliable delivery of information.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TCP/IP

A set of rules governing the reliable transfer of data between computers on the Internet.

Transparency
  1. A positive photographic image on film, viewed or projected by transmitted light (light shining through film).

  2. A full color image photographically produced on transparent film.

The transparency is scanned so that color separations can be produced for printing.

Transparent

When a material transmits light without diffusion, allowing an object to be clearly seen through it.

Transparent Ink

Ink that allows the paper or previously printed ink colors to show through.

Transparent Label

A label whose facestock, adhesive and topcoat are all transparent, allowing objects to be seen through it. It gives the product a “no label” look.

Transparent Magnetic Layer

Information storage layer built into Advanced Photo System film that enables enhanced information exchange capabilities, improving print quality by capturing lighting and scene information and other picture-taking data; basis for future information exchange features.

Transpose

The exchange or switching of a letter, word, line or image with the position of another letter, word, line or image.

Trapping

The overlapping of adjoining colors or ink to help prevent the possibility of a fine white area showing between colors due to misregistration of color negatives or due to normal variations on the press.

Tri-Fold

A fold where a three panel piece has both side sections folded inward, one on top of the other Each section is approximately 1/3 the length of the piece.

Triad

Set of three colors equidistant around the color wheel.

Trim
  1. The process of cutting the product to its finished size.

The excess that is cut off is also referred to as the trim.

  1. Combining various roll sizes to be slit from a full width roll from the paper machine so that an acceptable percentage of the salable width will be used.

  2. The edge of the page of a printed product that actually extends beyond the planned dimensions of the final product.

This trim enables all the pages of a book or magazine to be cut to the same size in the final processing stages.

Trim Marks

Marks that are added to the copy and printed along with the other copy to show where the sheet will be trimmed.

Trim Size

The final size that a printed page will be after excess has been trimmed.

Trimmer Assembly

In the burster-trimmer-stacker, it is the device that removes the linehole margins on the form.

Trimming

The process by which the pages of a book, brochure or magazine are smoothed or evened out. The three unbound sides of a publication are usually trimmed, though in the adhesive binding process, all four sides are trimmed.

Trimming also separates the individual pages, so that the book or brochure can be opened.

Tripod

A three-legged supporting stand used to hold the camera steady.

Especially useful when using slow shutter speeds and/or telephoto lenses.

Tritones

Three halftone images, produced at different screen angles, which were made from the same image and then printed over each other in three different colors.

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

TFTP

A less complex and easier to program version of FTP that lacks the authentication services FTP provides and relies on UDP rather than TCP for data transport.

Trojan Horse

A type of computer virus in which the malicious code hides inside an harmless-looking file or executable.

True Watermark

A translucent image created in the paper on the paper machine, with the use of a dandy roller.

The image is generally the name of the paper or a company logo and can be viewed from both sides of the paper.

TrueType

Terminology used to define technologies for displaying fonts on monitors and other output devices.

Developed by Adobe, Type 1 defines character shapes mathematically irrespective of size as curves using cubic Bezier polynomials.

A program known as a rasterizer generates the characters as screen images in the required size and suitable for the resolution of the output device.

The system also forms part of the Postscript system for defining the graphical form of documents and is therefore prevalent in the prepress industry.

TrueType is a similar process that is used for Macintosh computers and the Windows operating system.

This technology uses simpler quadratic B-splines for defining the characters.

There have been attempts to converge Type 1 and TrueType, and as a result Version 3 of the Postscript system now also supports TrueType technology.

TrueType Fonts

A computer font format created by Apple Computer to use in place of Adobe PostScript fonts. This font format can be used for bitmapped screen display and vector based output.

They were created to eliminate the need to have two different font formats for screen fonts and printer fonts.

TruMatch

A digital 4-color matching system.

Truncate
  1. Dropping the decimal point and the numbers to the right of the decimal, without rounding the number.

  2. To abbreviate a word by dropping off letters at the end.

Trust Centers

An organization which creates digital certificates and serves as a neutral, trustworthy authority to verify the identity of users or clients.

The correct allocation of a digital certificate to an individual is guaranteed via a certification server, a type of registration authority, which is part of the trust center.

Tumble

The printing on the front and back of a sheet so that the tops of each side are placed at opposite ends from each other.

The top of one page is opposite the bottom of the other.

When reading, you turn the sheet over from top to bottom.

Tungsten Light

Light from regular room lamps and ceiling fixtures, not fluorescent.

Turnaround Time

The accumulated time between receipt of an order and delivery of the finished product.

TVI

Tonal Value Increase

The percent increase in the apparent darkness of an image in the mid-tone range during the production run.

Example: with 15 percent dot gain, a 55 percent halftone will increase to 70 percent.

This increase is compensated for in reproduction by making the image lighter in the color separations. See also “dot gain”.

TWAIN

An industry standard interface that directly accepts image data from external sources such as scanners without having to leave the software applications program.

The external source must be TWAIN compatible.

Twenty-Four-Bit Color

True Color systems use 24 bits per pixel, allowing them to display 16.7 million different colors per pixel.

Twisted Pair

A type of network physical media made of copper wires twisted around each other.

Ordinary telephone cable.

Two-Up

Having two images of a complete item on a layout, negative or plate.

Type 1

Terminology used to define technologies for displaying fonts on monitors and other output devices.

Developed by Adobe, Type 1 defines character shapes mathematically irrespective of size as curves using cubic Bezier polynomials.

A program known as a rasterizer generates the characters as screen images in the required size and suitable for the resolution of the output device.

The system also forms part of the Postscript system for defining the graphical form of documents and is therefore prevalent in the prepress industry.

TrueType is a similar process that is used for Macintosh computers and the Windows operating system.

This technology uses simpler quadratic B-splines for defining the characters.

There have been attempts to converge Type 1 and TrueType, and as a result Version 3 of the Postscript system now also supports TrueType technology.

Type 1 and TrueType

Terminology used to define technologies for displaying fonts on monitors and other output devices.

Developed by Adobe, Type 1 defines character shapes mathematically irrespective of size as curves using cubic Bezier polynomials.

A program known as a rasterizer generates the characters as screen images in the required size and suitable for the resolution of the output device.

The system also forms part of the Postscript system for defining the graphical form of documents and is therefore prevalent in the prepress industry.

TrueType is a similar process that is used for Macintosh computers and the Windows operating system.

This technology uses simpler quadratic B-splines for defining the characters.

There have been attempts to converge Type 1 and TrueType, and as a result Version 3 of the Postscript system now also supports TrueType technology.

Type 1 Fonts

PostScript fonts developed to include in its font description special hinting algorithms that make the fonts more appealing, compact in size and more quickly rendered.

Type Family

A collection of fonts in one design, including the normal, italic, bold, and bold italic variation, in a range of sizes.

Type Size

The height of the characters of a font, measuring from the top of the tallest character to the bottom of the lowest character.

The type size referred to as point size because it is generally measured in points.

The vertical dimensions of a letter, measured in point or millimeter.

Type Style

The characteristic, such as light, bold or italic, of a typeface.

Typeface

The type style or design shared by of a set of characters.

Typescript

A typewritten copy of a work.

It may be the author’s original copy, a typewritten copy of the manuscript, or a typewritten copy done by a professional typist.

See also Manuscript.

Typesetter
  1. A piece of equipment that outputs type, generally on photographic paper or film.

  2. The person who inputs the type.

Typesetting

The process by which characters are assembled into formatted text for the purpose of producing print originals.

Before typesetting machines were invented, text was set by hand using individual letters of type.

The first major revolution in the typesetting world came in 1882 when Ottmar Mergenthaler patented the Linotype line composing machine.

In the second half of the 20th Century, typesetting moved increasingly towards photocomposition.

Today, typesetting and page make-up are largely computerized in the form of “desktop publishing”.

Typographer

A person skilled in the art of setting or designing type.

Typographical System of Units

A measurement system originally developed by the Parisian typecaster Pierre Simon Fournier in 1737.

The basic unit is the typographical point (abbreviated p), where 1 meter = 2660 points or 1 point = 0.3759 millimeters.

Other units are the nonpareil (6 points), brevier (8 points), cicero © (12 points) and canon (48 points).

These designations stem from type sizes which originally had their own names.

The restructuring of the measurement system in Germany in 1977 brought an end to this system, though it continues to be used in a modified form.

The units have been rounded to 5/100 millimeters.

Typography
  1. The study of the design and use of type, the objective of which is to make text as legible and visually attractive as possible, by choosing appropriate typefaces, font sizes and attributes, but also by means of page layout.

The rules of typography for paper are so well developed that further improvements scarcely seem likely, though this is not yet the case for other media such as computer monitors and electronic displays.

  1. The style and designing of how the type should be arranged on a printed piece.

  2. The art and process of setting or designing type.

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