Glossary of Printing Terms:N

Name Resolution

Translating of a domain name to its IP address.

Name Server

Computers on the Internet with programs that translate domain names, assigned to networks and hosts, into the IP address numbers.

Nameplate

A label usually containing information about the product it is attached to, such as serial numbers, model numbers and electrical requirements. The label is generally constructed of a metal or other material that will hold up to extreme conditions

Nanometer

A unit in which wavelengths of light are expressed. One nanometer is one-billionth of a meter.

Naphthas

Alipathic hydrocarbon solvent derived from petroleum such as hexane, V M & P naphtha, etc.

Characterized by low K.B. values. Will swell natural or butyl rubber and will have slight effect on Buna-N or Neoprene.

NAPI

Netscape Application Programming Interface

Set of programming specifications for use in creating Web based applications.

NAPIM

National Association of Printing Ink Manufacturers

A trade association whose purpose is to provide information and assistance to its members to better manage their businesses, and to represent the printing ink industry in the United States.

http://www.napim.org/

NAPs

Network Access Points

The individual computers of a network that provide an entry to the high-speed Internet backbone system.

National Cooperative Business Association

NCBA

Founded in 1916

A United States membership organization for cooperatives, businesses that are jointly-owned and democratically-controlled.

In 2000 the group successfully lobbied the ICANN to establish a new top-level domain exclusively for business cooperations.

The domain, .coop, became active in 2002.

NCBA members include some well-known United States consumer brands, such as Ace Hardware, Florida’s Natural, and Land O’ Lakes.

National Information Standards Organization

NISO

The National Information Standards Organization (NISO)is a nonprofit association accredited as a standards developer by the American National Standards Institute, the national clearinghouse for voluntary standards development in the U.S. NISO is a leader in shaping international standards.

The goal in using technical standards in information services, libraries, and publishing is to achieve compatibility and therefore interoperability between equipment, data, practices, and procedures in order to make information services more productive.

NISO

Native Mode

Using a protocol in the environment for which it was originally developed.

Natural

A term to describe papers that have a color similar to that of wood, also called cream, off-white or ivory.

Natural Colored

Paper color resulting from the use of little or no chemical coloring

Navigating

Moving through the pages of a Web site by following links.

Navigator

Netscape’’s Web browser.

NCBA

National Cooperative Business Association

Founded in 1916

A United States membership organization for cooperatives, businesses that are jointly-owned and democratically-controlled.

In 2000 the group successfully lobbied the ICANN to establish a new top-level domain exclusively for business cooperations.

The domain, .coop, became active in 2002.

NCBA members include some well-known United States consumer brands, such as Ace Hardware, Florida’s Natural, and Land O’ Lakes.

NCOA

National Change of Address System

A system provided for a fee by the U.S. Postal Service that enable organizations sending mail to compare their addresses with those recorded on the NCOA system in order to identify incorrect addresses and make corrections prior to the mailing.

NCR

A multiple-part paper form that does not use carbon paper. The ink is adhered to the reverse side of the previous sheet. Originally developed by NCR Corporation and known as “NCR brand, carbonless paper,” it has also been called “no carbon required” paper.

NCSA

National Center for Supercomputing Applications

The facility where Mosaic, the first graphical browser, was developed. NCSA is located at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois.

ND

No Date

No publication date is printed in a Book.

NDS

NetWare Directory Services

Novell’’s distributed, replicated name service built into NetWare 4.X.

Negative
  1. A photographic image on film which reverses the black and white areas of the original.

The black areas on the original are clear on the negative and the white areas of the original are black on the negative. The negative film is used in the platemaking process.

  1. The developed film that contains a reversed tone image of the original scene.
Negative Holder

A device designed to hold the negative in proper position in an enlarger.

Negative Image

A reversed image where the image that is usually black on a white background is reversed to be white on a black background.

Negative Returned In Cassette

NRIC

Required Advanced Photo System feature that returns processed film in its original, closed cassette; liberates consumers from the hassle of storing and handling film negatives.

Neoprene Rubber

A polymer of chloroprene, it is used as an adhesive base. Commonly used where oil and gasoline resistance is required.

Resistance to swelling action of aromatics (pure and fuels) is poor but much better than natural rubber. Also used to coat doctor or metering rolls.

Nested

When one piece is placed inside part of another piece, such as when an insert gets placed in the fold of a letter or brochure.

Net Book Agreement

The agreement formerly administered by the Publishers Association whereby publishers in the UK were able to dictate the minimum price at which their titles were sold by bookshops; abandoned by publishers in 1995 and finally made illegal by the Restrictive Practices Court in 1997.

Net Weight

The weight of the contents of a container or packaging material. Gross weight minus the tare weight equals the net weight.

Netiquette

An informal set of rules or common courtesy when using the Internet.

Netscape

The general name for a series of web browsers originally produced by Netscape Communications Corporation, but now developed by AOL.

The original browser was once the dominant browser in terms of usage share, but as a result of the first browser war they lost many of their customers to Internet Explorer.

http://www.netscape.com/

NetSearch

An Internet search engine.

Network

A network is formed when two or more computers are connected together so that they can share system resources.

A network can share a server, communication control units, modems, system programs and have the capability to provide remote interactive processing.

Network Adapter

A physical device and related software, that enables the connection of a processor or controller to a network.

Network Address

The part of the IP address that designates the network portion the address.

Network Administrator

The person responsible for the installation, management, and maintenance of a network system.

Network Architecture

An organized method for allowing devices at multiple locations to communicate through a common carrier transmission facilities. It specifies the hardware and defines protocols.

Neutral Gray

Any level of gray with no color cast or hue.

Neutral pH

1.Acid-free papers are manufactured in an alkaline environment, which prevents the internal chemical deterioration of the paper over time.

The addition of calcium carbonate as a buffer also makes the paper resistant to the effects of an external acidic environment.

2.When offset papers are manufactured with a pH of 6.0 to 8.0 on a scale of 0 -14.0.

Papers are manufactured with neutral pH factors to increase the stability and improve the permanency for printing of archival records.

Neutral Sulphite Pulp

Semi-chemical pulp produced by cooking woodchips in a neutral sulphite solution

New Edition

A reprint of an existing title incorporating substantial textual alterations, or republication of a title which has been out of print.

Newbies

Beginner Internet users.

News

Software that allows the reading and posting of messages on specific topics that are read by NNTP.

Newsgroup

A collection of postings from various readers relevant to a specific topic.

Newsletter

A short periodical that is generally informal and includes specialized information written for a specific audience.

Newsprint

Paper with a high woodpulp content, sometimes calendered for web-fed printing (letterpress or offset)

The primary raw materials are wastepaper and wood fibers as well as chemical pulp. Newsprint is extremely opaque, but yellows relatively quickly.

It is made from mostly wood pulp. It has a dot gain of 20% or more.

Its grammage generally ranges from 40 to 57 gsm.

Newton

A unit of measurement used to measure bind strength. A newton is the amount of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared.

NFS

Network File System

The system that allows the user to access files contained on remote hosts, and once they have been accessed, they will respond as if they were on the user’’s local disks.

NIC

Network Information Center

The offices that handle the information for a network.

A famous Network Information Center on the internet is InterNIC, where new domain names are registered.

NiCad

Nickel Cadmium

A nickel cadmium battery that is generally the most common rechargeable battery.

They have about half the capacity of the NiMH batteries, but are considerably less expensive and should provide about one half hour of use fully charged

NiMH

Nickel Metal Hydride

A nickel metal hydride battery which is most often the best battery for a digital camera.

They are the highest capacity rechargeable AA batteries available and should provide an hour or two of continuous use.

NIP

Non Impact Printing

Printing accomplished by a spray of ink or toner, or the result of a chemical reaction, opposed to the image being the result of impact applied to a ribbon.

Nipping

A stage in book binding where after sewing the sheets are pressed to expel air.

NISO

National Information Standards Organization

The National Information Standards Organization (NISO)is a nonprofit association accredited as a standards developer by the American National Standards Institute, the national clearinghouse for voluntary standards development in the U.S. NISO is a leader in shaping international standards.

The goal in using technical standards in information services, libraries, and publishing is to achieve compatibility and therefore interoperability between equipment, data, practices, and procedures in order to make information services more productive.

NISO

Nixie

Any mail that is declared undeliverable by the USPS due to incomplete delivery address information. Also referred to as undeliverables.

Nixies

Any mail that is declared undeliverable by the USPS due to incomplete delivery address information.

NNTP

Network News Transfer Protocol

The protocol used by the client and server to distribute news articles back and forth over the internet.

Node

The individual computers connected to a network.

Noise Image

Areas displaying distorted or “dirty” pixels caused by a misreading from the image sensor.

Nominal Weight

Basis weight of the paper at which it is billed.

A plus or minus tolerance in actual weight is allowed unless special arrangements have been made between the mill and the customer.

Non-Heatset

A printing process on a web press where the ink, that is applied to the paper, dries without the use of a heating process.

Non-Impact

The absence of forceful pressure being applied.

Non-Impact Printers

A printer that creates an image without the use of impacting, such as laser printers, ink jet printers, thermal printers and photocopiers.

Non-Impact Printing

Printing accomplished by a spray of ink or toner, or the result of a chemical reaction, opposed to the image being the result of impact applied to a ribbon.

Non-Integrated Mill

A paper mill that does not have an on-site pulp mill and must purchase all the pulp it requires.

Non-Net

During the existence of the Net Book Agreement, not subject to a price established by the publisher, particularly used of educational textbooks.

Non-Prime Label

A label that does not contain the main product identification but contains supportive information. It is generally located on the sides or back of the product and may be smaller than the primary label. Also referred to as a secondary label.

Non-Read Ink

Ink that has a high reflectance, preventing it from being detected by an optical scanner. Non-Read ink is used for information that you do not want to interfere with the data reading.

Non-Repro Pencil

A light blue pencil that is used to mark up layouts and which cannot be reproduced by a platemaking camera.

Non-Reproducible Colors

Colors that cannot be reproduced using process inks.

Non-Woven Materials

Usually refers to paper ‘tissues’ or synthetics such as tynek.

Nonimage Area

Any area, on an artboard, negative or plate, that is not to have any printing.

Nonpareil

Unit of measurement equal to one-half of a pica or six points.

Nonrepro Blue

A light blue color that can not be photographically reproduced, generally used for marking notes or crop marks on layouts. Also known as nonphoto blue.

Nonwoven

Fabric-like material made from long fibers, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment.

Normal Lens

A lens that makes the image in a photograph appear in perspective similar to that of the original scene.

A normal lens has a shorter focal length and a wider field of view than a telephoto lens, and a longer focal length and narrower field of view than a wide-angle lens.

Normal Lens

A lens that makes the image in a photograph appear in perspective similar to that of the original scene. A normal lens has a shorter focal length and a wider field of view than a telephoto lens, and a longer focal length and narrower field of view than a wide-angle lens.

Notching

A technique used to improve the bind on perfect-bound books. Small notches are cut along the binding edge to increase the edge area available when the book is glued.

Normally it is used with coated or calendered paper to improve the bind (see, The Photobook Binding Challenge White Paper).

Novelty

A book or book-related toy either involving the use of paper engineering or diecut to an unusual shape; almost always aimed at the children’s market.

NP

No Place

No place of publication is printed in a Book.

NRIC

Negative Returned In Cassette

Required Advanced Photo System feature that returns processed film in its original, closed cassette; liberates consumers from the hassle of storing and handling film negatives.

NSAPI

Netscape Server Application Programming Interface.

Nth-Name Select

A random selection process that is the most accurate way of getting a true representation of your list.

To find the Nth-name samples you divide the number of names on the list by the number of of test samples being sent. Example: 500,000 names divided by 20,000 samples = 25.

The N is 25, meaning samples would be sent to every 25th name on the list.

NTSC

Video Out Cable

An image transfer device or computer connection used primarily for preview purposes.

A camera may have an analog video output terminal which connects to a computer or television monitor allowing images to be viewed, inspected, and discarded to make room for more images in the camera.

Null

No value.

Null Characters

Characters added to a data stream that will not affect its information content.

It is sometimes necessary to use null characters to satisfy timing requirements or to fill in portions of message fields that are unused but must be filled in.

Numeric

Information expressed by numbers only, opposed to information that is alphanumeric which is expressed in both letters and numbers.


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